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July 1927

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Title: July 1927  
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Subject: 1927, April 1927, February 1927, March 1927, May 1927
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July 1927

July 20, 1927: Five year old Prince Michael proclaimed King of Romania
July 29, 1927: Russian Orthodox Church leader orders oath of allegiance to the Soviet government
July 24, 1927: The Menin Gate dedicated

The following events occurred in July 1927:


  • July 1, 1927 (Friday) 1
  • July 2, 1927 (Saturday) 2
  • July 3, 1927 (Sunday) 3
  • July 4, 1927 (Monday) 4
  • July 5, 1927 (Tuesday) 5
  • July 6, 1927 (Wednesday) 6
  • July 7, 1927 (Thursday) 7
  • July 8, 1927 (Friday) 8
  • July 9, 1927 (Saturday) 9
  • July 10, 1927 (Sunday) 10
  • July 11, 1927 (Monday) 11
  • July 12, 1927 (Tuesday) 12
  • July 13, 1927 (Wednesday) 13
  • July 14, 1927 (Thursday) 14
  • July 15, 1927 (Friday) 15
  • July 16, 1927 (Saturday) 16
  • July 17, 1927 (Sunday) 17
  • July 18, 1927 (Monday) 18
  • July 19, 1927 (Tuesday) 19
  • July 20, 1927 (Wednesday) 20
  • July 21, 1927 (Thursday) 21
  • July 22, 1927 (Friday) 22
  • July 23, 1927 (Saturday) 23
  • July 24, 1927 (Sunday) 24
  • July 25, 1927 (Monday) 25
  • July 26, 1927 (Tuesday) 26
  • July 27, 1927 (Wednesday) 27
  • July 28, 1927 (Thursday) 28
  • July 29, 1927 (Friday) 29
  • July 30, 1927 (Saturday) 30
  • July 31, 1927 (Sunday) 31
  • References 32

July 1, 1927 (Friday)

  • The first coast-to-coast radio network hookup in Canada was made for the celebration of the 60th anniversary of the Dominion.[1]
  • The airplane America, along with Commander Ver-sur-Mer when their plane ran out of fuel at 5:45 am, and they survived the ordeal.[2]
  • Born: Chandra Shekhar Singh, 8th Prime Minister of India (1990–91), in Ibrahimpatti

July 2, 1927 (Saturday)

  • Jane Eads, reporter for the Chicago Herald and Examiner became the first airline passenger, completing a flight from Chicago to San Francisco, on a Boeing Air Transport Model 40 that flew.[3] The airline would later become United Airlines.
  • Henri Cochet won the Wimbledon finals over fellow Frenchman Jean Borotra after losing the first two sets, 4-6 and 4-6, then won the next two 6-3, 6-4, and took the match 7-5. The day before, Cochet had made the finals by defeating Bill Tilden in the same come from behind fashion, losing the first 2 sets and winning the other three. Helen Wills became the first American player in 20 years to win the women's singles, beating Spanish champion Lili de Alvarez in straight sets, 6-2, 6-4.[4]
  • Lord Norman, Governor of the Bank of England and Hjalmar Schacht of the German Reichsbank met at Long Island with U.S. Undersecretary of the Treasury Ogden Mills to make plans to boost the American and world economies.[5]
  • Niels Bohr began working on his description of space-time in quantum and wave mechanics,[6]
  • Died, Harry Franklin, pioneering movie director

July 3, 1927 (Sunday)

July 4, 1927 (Monday)

July 5, 1927 (Tuesday)

July 6, 1927 (Wednesday)

July 7, 1927 (Thursday)

  • Portuguese neurosurgeon Egas Moniz first presented his discovery of cerebral angiography areterial encephelography in a paper presented at the Societe de Neurologie in Paris. Moniz had discovered a safe method of detecting brain tumors by injecting contrast into the cervical carotid artery.[16]
  • In his weekly magazine, The Dearborn Independent, auto manufacturer Henry Ford published an apology, widely reprinted, for his anti-Semitic views. The missive was part of a settlement of a libel lawsuit brought by Aaron Sapiro.[17]
  • Under pressure from the victorious Allies of World War I, Germany's Reichstag voted 390-44 to pass a law prohibiting the import or export of war materials.[18]
  • Born: Doc Severinsen, American bandleader, in Arlington, Oregon
  • Died: Gösta Mittag-Leffler, 81, Swedish mathematician

July 8, 1927 (Friday)

July 9, 1927 (Saturday)

  • Torrential rains in Germany swelled the Elbe River and led to flash floods that killed hundreds in Saxony. In the village of Berggießhübel, 93 people drowned when a 7 foot high wave swept through the town. At least 200 people were reported to have died.[21]
  • The Federal Trade Commission outlawed the practice of "block booking" by film distributors, issuing a cease and desist order to Paramount Pictures. Until the FTC order, Paramount required cinemas to rent films as part of a block of movies, usually with the arrangement that a popular film had to be accepted along with several less attractive releases.[22]
  • Died: John Drew, Jr., 73, American stage actor; and Gregory Kelly, 36, American stage actor and husband of actress Ruth Gordon, who outlived him by 58 years.

July 10, 1927 (Sunday)

  • Irish Vice-President and Minister of Justice Kevin O'Higgins was shot while walking to mid-day mass at Blackrock. O'Higgins, described as "the Irish Mussolini" and "probably the most respected and at the same time the most hated man in Ireland", had given his bodyguard the day off. A car pulled up beside him and three gunmen jumped out and began firing. Reportedly, he was shot six times, but remained conscious for several hours after being taken back to his home.[23] In response to his murder, the Irish Dail passed repressive legislation that effectively barred the Irish Republican Army from running candidates for office.[24]
  • General José Sanjurjo declared the pacification of Spanish Morocco and the end of the Moroccan War after 18 years.[25]
  • Born: David Dinkins, first African-American Mayor of New York City (1990–93), in Trenton, New Jersey

July 11, 1927 (Monday)

  • The very first 7-Eleven convenience store opened, on Edgefield and 12th Streets in Dallas, Texas, on 7/11/1927, with the new concept of staying open from 7:00 am to 11:00pm.[26]
  • Striking at 2:10 in the afternoon, a 6.5 magnitude earthquake in Palestine killed more than 200 people. Though initial reports set a higher death toll,[27] a later report by the British Secretary of State for the Colonies put the death toll at 200 in Palestine and another 8 in Trans-Jordan.[28] Hardest hit were Nablus, Ramallah and Lydda. The River Jordan dried up, and remained that way for 21 hours.[29]
  • More than a century after her death, a sealed box, owned by Joanna Southcott and said to contain her final prophecies, was opened at Westminster.[30] Inside the container was a pistol, a nightcap, some coins and other personal belongings... but nothing mysterious.[31]
  • African-American singer and actress Ethel Waters made her Broadway debut, appearing in the production Africana.[32]
  • Born: Theodore H. Maiman, American inventor and physicist who developed the laser, patented in 1960; in Los Angeles

July 12, 1927 (Tuesday)

July 13, 1927 (Wednesday)

  • French Prime Minister Raymond Poincaré, who was also the Finance Minister, received a vote of confidence in the Chamber of Deputies and an endorsement of his call to not add further spending to the budget. Informing the legislators that "Messieurs, the whole fate of French finances rests on your decision," Poincaré won his point by a margin of 347 to 200.[35]
  • Born: Simone Veil, President of the European Parliament (1979–1982), and former French Minister of Health, as Simone Jacob, in Nice

July 14, 1927 (Thursday)

July 15, 1927 (Friday)

  • July Revolt of 1927: Protesters in Vienna, angry over the acquittal of three accused murderers, marched on the Palace of Justice (Justizpalast), where the trial had taken place. Police chief Johannes Schober ordered his men to fire into the crow, and 84 people were killed, while the court building burned to the ground.[37][38]
  • In Greece, the government issued decrees directed against the Macedonian minority of Slavic descent. The new rules banned use of Macedonian language and decreed that Cyrillic inscriptions were to be removed from churches.[39]
  • Born: Ann Jellicoe, British playwright, in Middlesbrough
  • Died: Countess Markievicz (Constance Gore-Booth), 69, Irish politician

July 16, 1927 (Saturday)

  • At 1:15 a.m., several hundred Nicaraguan rebels, led by Augusto César Sandino, attacked a barracks at Ocotal, occupied by 38 U.S. Marines and 47 Nicaraguan civil guards. USMC Captain Gilbert Hatfield and his men withstood three charges. At mid-morning, rescue came from Major Ross E. Rowell, who had gotten word of the attack and led "the first dive-bombing campaign in history".[40] At battle's end, 300 rebels and one U.S. Marine had been killed.[41]
  • Cartoonist Theodor Geisel, 23, was published for the first time under the nom de plume inspired by his mother's maiden name, "Seuss", in the July 16, 1927, Saturday Evening Post, effectively beginning his career as illustrator and author Dr. Seuss.[42]
  • Germany's Reichstag passed comprehensive unemployment insurance and maternity leave laws, by a margin of 356-47.[43]

July 17, 1927 (Sunday)

  • In furtherance of the Turkish nationalist movement, Turkey directed the relocation of 1,400 members of the Kurdish minority from their homes in the southeast, to the far west. This was followed by deportation of Armenian and Syriac people from the same area.[44]

July 18, 1927 (Monday)

  • Ty Cobb got his 4,000th hit (and would finish with 4,191) playing for the Philadelphia A's at Detroit against his former team, the Tigers. As one commentator noted fifty years later, "the event went almost unnoticed".[45] On the same day, future Hall of Famer Mel Ott hit his first home run, an inside the park homer,[46]
  • Born: Kurt Masur, East German conductor, and later conductor of the London Philharmonic Orchestra; in Brieg (now Brzeg, Poland)

July 19, 1927 (Tuesday)

  • A version of the flag of Spain, with a coat of arms against a yellow field between two red stripes, was adopted for the first time.[47]
  • Pan American Airways, which would grow to become one of the world's largest airlines before its bankruptcy in 1991, was awarded its first flight route, signing the contract to transport American mail between Key West and Havana. Flights began on October 19, meeting the three month deadline called for in the agreement.[48]
  • Died: Sheikh Amadou Bamba, 74, Senegalese Muslim religious leader and founder of the Murid Order; and Zhao Shiyan, Chinese Communist official, who was executed after being captured by Nationalist forces

July 20, 1927 (Wednesday)

  • The French Olympic Committee, lacking funds, voted not to send a team to the 1928 games scheduled for Amsterdam. French perfume magnate François Coty would come to the team's rescue by loaning one million francs to the Committee.[49]
  • Germany and Japan established closer ties by the signing of a trade treaty in Tokyo between the two nations, by Ambassador Wilhelm Solf and Prime Minister Tanaka.[50]
  • Born: Leon C. Hirsch, American inventor of the Auto Suture surgical stapler, and founder of United States Surgical Corporation; and Barbara Bergmann, American economist; both in the Bronx.
  • Died: King Ferdinand of Romania, 72, who had ruled since 1914, died at 2:15 am at his palace in Sinaia after a battle with cancer. At 6:00 pm, his 5-year old grandson, Michael was proclaimed as the new monarch, with a regency council, headed by Prince Nicholas, acting on the boy king's behalf.[51]

July 21, 1927 (Thursday)

  • Before a crowd of 90,000 at New York's Yankee Stadium, former heavyweight boxing champion Jack Dempsey, 32, fought with Jack Sharkey to determine who would be the challenger in a September bout against champion Gene Tunney. Sharkey was winning after six rounds. As the 7th began, Dempsey struck two low body blows to Sharkey, who turned toward referee Jack O'Sullivan to complain of a foul. When Sharkey turned his head, Dempsey struck him in the jaw with a short left hook and knocked him out.[52]
  • The Ford Motor Company took steps toward the creation of Fordlândia, by spending $8,000,000 to buy 1,000,000 hectares (2,470,000 acres or 3,861 square miles) of land in Brazil's Pará State, in return for a 50 year tax exemption and full legal jurisdiction rights.[53]
  • The day after his father's death, and the proclamation of his six year old son as King of Romania, former Crown Prince Carol, who had renounced his right of succession two years earlier, proclaimed from his villa near Paris that he planned to claim the throne.[54]

July 22, 1927 (Friday)

  • The merger of three clubs (Roman FC, SS Alba-Audace and Fortitudo-Pro Roma SGS) created the Italian soccer football team A.S. Roma, league champion in 1942, 1983 and 2001

July 23, 1927 (Saturday)

  • The first regular radio broadcasts in India began as the Indian Broadcasting Company went on the air in Mumbai (Bombay). A second station began operations on August 26 in Kolkata (Calcutta). The privately owned company was bought in 1930 by the publicly funded Indiam Broadcasting Service, now All India Radio.[55]
  • Born: Elliot See, American astronaut who was killed in a plane crash three months before he would have commanded the Gemini 9 mission (d.1966)
  • Died: Brigadier General Reginald Dyer, 62, British officer whose orders to army troops to fire into a crowd of civilians resulted in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 1919

July 24, 1927 (Sunday)

  • The Menin Gate Memorial to the Missing was dedicated in Ypres, Belgium, as a monument to nearly 90,000 soldiers of the British Empire who went missing in action in the three Battles of Ypres in World War I. The names of 54,900 soldiers who were missing in action were engraved on the available space, and another 34,888 were inscribed at a memorial at the nearby Tyne Cot cemetery. The Last Post continues to be sounded each evening at 8:00 pm at the monument.[56]
  • Died: Ryūnosuke Akutagawa, 35, Japanese short story writer, by suicide; and Maurice E. Crumpacker, U.S. Congressman (R-Oregon), by suicide.[57]

July 25, 1927 (Monday)

July 26, 1927 (Tuesday)

July 27, 1927 (Wednesday)

  • Soviet emissary Mikhail Borodin and 30 people left Wuhan in five cars and five trucks to return to the USSR in a two month overland trip, after General Feng Yuxiang was bribed to guarantee him safe passage—twelve days after Chinese Communists were expelled. Borodin had had a bounty of US$29,000 for his capture, and had hidden in the home of Nationalist official and future Chinese Premier T.V. Soong.[60] Borodin finally returned to Moscow on October 6.[61]
  • The President and Mrs. Coolidge escaped serious injury after a panicked team of horses charged toward their open car, then veered away after coming within 20 feet. The horses panicked during a re-enactment of Custer's Last Stand, and charged through the crowd and out of the amphitheatre where 10,000 had assembled. Miraculously, nobody was hurt in the incident.[62]
  • Born: Yuri Denisyuk, Soviet physicist who helped develop the science of holography, in Sochi (d. 2006); and Dawid Rubinowicz, Polish victim of the Holocaust whose diaries were published 18 years after his death on September 22, 1942 at the Treblinka extermination camp; in Kielce.

July 28, 1927 (Thursday)

  • Twenty-seven people, 16 of them children, died when the excursion boat The Favorite, capsized in Lake Michigan, one-half mile after departing Lincoln Park.[63]
  • Born: John Ashbery, American poet, in Rochester, New York. In 1976, he won the National Book Award, the National Book Critics Award and the Pulitzer Prize for his published poetry in Portrait in a Convex Mirror.

July 29, 1927 (Friday)

July 30, 1927 (Saturday)

  • The last flight of the U.S. Air Mail Service took place, a year after the agency had begun phasing out in favor of the Postmaster General contracting with independent carriers. The AMS had delivered mail since May 15, 1918.[66]
  • Two future Kings arrived in Quebec, along with British Prime Minister, Empress of AustraliaRMS to begin a month-long tour of the Dominion.[67]
  • Born: Victor Wong, Chinese-American character actor (3 Ninjas film series), in San Francisco (d. 2001)

July 31, 1927 (Sunday)

  • The Madison suburb of Shorewood Hills, Wisconsin was incorporated from a merger of Shorewood and College Hills.[68]
  • Died: Sir Harry Johnston, 69, British explorer of Africa during the 19th century; and Walter Travis, 65, Australian-born golfer who won the U.S. Amateur championship 1900-01 and 1903, in the pre-professional era.


  1. ^ Mary Vipond, Listening In: The First Decade of Canadian Broadcasting, 1922-1932 (McGill-Queen's Press, 1992) p70
  2. ^ "BYRD CRASHES; SAFE!", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 1, 1927, p1; "How They Beat That Night of Terror-- By Fearless Bert Acosta", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 2, 1927, p1
  3. ^ "Girl First Air Line Passenger", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 2, 1927, p2; "Girl Flying to Pacific Writes Story While on Wing- She's First Passenger on Mail Plane Route", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 3, 1927, p2
  4. ^ "Helen Wills, Cochet Grasp Tennis Crowns", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 3, 1927, p3-1
  5. ^ Jim Powell, FDR's Folly: How Roosevelt and His New Deal Prolonged the Great Depression (Random House, Inc., 2004) p27
  6. ^ Jagdish Mehra and Helmut Rechenberg, The Historical Development of Quantum Theory (Springer, 2000) p190
  7. ^ Satchel Paige, as told to David Lipman, Maybe I'll Pitch Forever (University of Nebraska Press, 1993)
  8. ^ R. B. Cribb and Audrey Kahin, Historical Dictionary of Indonesia (Scarecrow Press, 2004) p324
  9. ^ Birch Matthews, Race with the Wind: How Air Racing Advanced Aviation (Zenith Imprint, 2001) p50
  10. ^ Russel Lemmons, Goebbels and Der Angriff (University Press of Kentucky, 1994) p31
  11. ^ Brian Harvey, Europe's Space Programme: To Ariane and beyond (Springer, 2003) p4
  12. ^ Geoff Jones, Northwest Airlines:: The First Eighty Years (Arcadia Publishing, 2005) p10
  13. ^ "Whole Bolivia Navy Sunk! It's One Ship", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 6, 1927, p1
  14. ^ "New Prayer Book Wins Assembly Vote", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 2, 1927, p1
  15. ^ Peter J. Levinson, Tommy Dorsey: Livin' in a Great Big Way, (Da Capo Press, 2005) p28
  16. ^ G. Benndorf, Dural Cavernous Sinus Fistulas: Diagnosis and Endovascular Therapy (Springer, 2009) p109
  17. ^ Gerald Leinwand, 1927: High Tide of the Twenties (Basic Books, 2002) p214; "RACES: Apology to Jews", TIME Magazine, July 18, 1927
  18. ^ Richard J. Shuster, German Disarmament after World War I: The Diplomacy of International Arms Inspection, 1920-1931 (Routledge, 2006) p173; "War Materials Export Banned", Miami News, July 8, 1927, p10
  19. ^ Heather Lehr Wagner, Famous Flyers: Charles Lindbergh (Infobase Publishing, 2002) pp58-59
  20. ^ Eric M. Leifer, Making the Majors: The Transformation of Team Sports in America (Harvard University Press, 1998) p90; "Ban Johnson Resigns Post As Loop Head; Founder Of League To Leave Position Before Nov. 1", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 9, 1927, p2-1
  21. ^ "200 LIVES LOST IN SAXONY FLOOD", Border Cities Star (Windsor, ON), July 11, 1927, p1
  22. ^ Philip E. Meza, Coming Attractions?: Hollywood, High Tech, and the Future of Entertainment (Stanford University Press, 2007) p57; "BUSINESS: Cinemalefactors", TIME Magazine, July 18, 1927
  23. ^ "IRISH MINISTER OF JUSTICE ASSASSINATED", Regina Morning Leader, July 11, 1927, p1
  24. ^ Eunan O'Halpin, Defending Ireland: The Irish State and Its Enemies since 1922 (Oxford University Press US, 1999) p67
  25. ^ Wayne H. Bowen and José E. Álvarez, A Military History of Modern Spain: from the Napoleonic Era to the International War on Terror (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007) p50
  26. ^ Mary G. Ramos and Dick Reavis, Texas (Random House, Inc., 2004)
  27. ^ "1,000 Dead in Quake; Ruin Widespread in Palestine Area", New York Times, July 13, 1927; "670 Dead, 3,000 Hurt in Quake", Miami Daily News, July 14, 1927, p1
  28. ^ "Palestine Earthquake: Official Report of the Damage", Glasgow Herald, July 19, 1927, p6
  29. ^ "Bible's foundations shaken", New Scientist, June 7, 1979, p798
  30. ^ "Prophet Johannas' 113-Year-Old Mystery To Be Revealed to Waiting World at Last", Pittsburgh Press, June 8, 1927, p44
  31. ^ "No New Prophecies Are Found In 13-Year Old Mystery Box", Miami Daily News and Metropolis, July 12, 1927, p2
  32. ^ Stephen Bourne, Ethel Waters: Stormy Weather (Scarecrow Press, 2007) p14
  33. ^ Tony Saich, The Rise to Power of the Chinese Communist Party: Documents and Analysis (M.E. Sharpe, 1996) p269
  34. ^ Peter Macalister-Smith, International Humanitarian Assistance: Disaster Relief Actions in International Law and Organization (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1985) p19
  35. ^ "Poincare Defies Chamber and Wins", New York Times, July 14, 1927, p5
  36. ^ Stanislav J. Kirschbaum, A History of Slovakia: the Struggle for Survival (Palgrave Macmillan, 1996) p175
  37. ^ Dirk Berg-Schlosser and Jeremy Mitchell, Conditions of Democracy in Europe, 1919-39: Systematic Case-studies (Palgrave Macmillan, 2000) p51; Jeffrey Thompson Schnapp and Matthew Tiews, Crowds (Stanford University Press, 2002) p149
  38. ^ "BLOODSHED IN VIENNA RIOTS; Police Open Fire On Mob; 40 Dead, 200 Are Injured", Modesto (CA) Bee - July 14, 1927, p1; "Armed Police Patrol Vienna As Strike Ends-- Death Roll Placed at 84", Miami News - July 19, 1927, p2
  39. ^ Denying Ethnic Identity: the Macedonians of Greece (Human Rights Watch/Helsinki Organization, 1994) p7
  40. ^ Joseph H. Alexander, The Battle History of the U.S. Marines: A Fellowship of Valor By Don Horan, Norman C. Stahl (HarperCollins, 1999) pp56-57
  41. ^ "Hunt Chief of Bandits After 300 Are Slain By U.S. Force", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 19, 1927, p1
  42. ^ Donald E. Pease, Theodor Seuss Geisel (Oxford University Press US, 2010) p42
  43. ^ Eric D. Weitz, Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy (Princeton University Press, 2007) p108
  44. ^ "Seeing like a nation-state: Young Turk social engineering in Eastern Turkey, 1913-50", by Uğur Ümit Üngör, Journal of Genocide Research (March 2008) p31
  45. ^ "When Ty Cobb Collected His 4,000th Hit", by Ernie Harwell, Baseball Digest (May 1977), pp 59-61
  46. ^ "Major League Baseball Briefs", by Bob David, Baseball Digest (June 1990) p43
  47. ^ Dorling Kindersley, Complete Flags of the World (Penguin, 2008) p136
  48. ^ Lynn M. Homan and Thomas Reilly, Image of America: Pan Am (Arcadia Publishing, 2000) p9
  49. ^ Roulhac B. Toledano and Elizabeth Z. Coty, Francois Coty: Fragrance, Power, Money (Pelican Publishing, 2009) p147
  50. ^ Peter J. Hempenstall and Paula Tanaka Mochida, The Lost Man: Wilhelm Solf in German History(Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005) p185
  51. ^ "Ferdinand Dead; Boy of 5 Now King", Milwaukee Journal, July 20, 1927, p1
  52. ^ "DEMPSEY KAYOES SHARKEY IN 7TH", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 22, 1927, p2-1; Joseph S. Page, Primo Carnera: The Life and Career of the Heavyweight Boxing Champion (McFarland, 2010) p72
  53. ^ Joel Wolfe, Autos and Progress: The Brazilian Search for Modernity (Oxford University Press US, 2010) p82
  54. ^ "CAROL DECLARES HIMSELF KING!", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 22, 1927, p1
  55. ^ Christopher H. Sterling, The Museum of Broadcast Communications Encyclopedia of Radio (Taylor & Francis, 2003)
  56. ^ Winston Groom, A Storm in Flanders: The Ypres Salient, 1914-1918: Tragedy and Triumph on the Western Front (Grove Press, 2003) p261
  57. ^ "Congressman Dies After Leap Into Bay", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 25, 1927, p1
  58. ^ Brian Solomon, Railroad Signaling (Voyageur Press, 2010) p63
  59. ^ Jonathan Bailey, Great Power Strategy in Asia: Empire, Culture and Trade, 1905-2005 (Taylor & Francis, 2007) p74; "Tanaka Plan for Japan's World Conquest Calls for Crushing America, Says Dr. Roth", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 19, 1932, p6-E
  60. ^ Hannah Pakula, The Last Empress: Madame Chiang Kai-Shek and the Birth of Modern China (Simon and Schuster, 2009) pp162-164
  61. ^ Jonathan Fenby, Chiang Kai Shek: China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost (Da Capo Press, 2005) p158
  62. ^ "RUNAWAY HORSES PERIL COOLIDGE", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 28, 1927, p1
  63. ^ "26 DROWNED AS CHICAGO EXCURSION BOAT CAPSIZES", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 29, 1927, p1
  64. ^ Timothy Ware, The Orthodox Church (Penguin, 1993) pp151-152
  65. ^ Keith Laybourn, Modern Britain since 1906: A Reader (I.B.Tauris, 1999) p149
  66. ^ Carroll V. Glines, The Saga of the Air Mail (Ayer Publishing, 1980) p84
  67. ^ "British Royal Heirs Arrive with Premier", Pittsburgh Press, July 31, 1927, p1
  68. ^
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