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Armenian notables deported from the Ottoman capital in 1915

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Subject: April 24, Genocides in history, Talaat Pasha, Aram Andonian, Genocide Remembrance Day, Krikor Zohrab, Erukhan, Rupen Zartarian, Siamanto, Armenian Genocide denial
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Armenian notables deported from the Ottoman capital in 1915


The deportation of Armenian notables, sometimes known as the Red Sunday (Armenian: Կարմիր Կիրակի Garmir Giragi) was an event during the Armenian Genocide in which leaders of the Armenian community of the Ottoman capital, Constantinople, and later other locations were arrested and moved to two holding centers near Ankara upon the order of the Minister of the Interior Mehmed Talaat Bey of April 24, 1915. With the adoption of the Tehcir Law on 29 May 1915, they were later relocated, within the Empire and most of them were killed. A few, such as Vrtanes Papazian and Komitas Vardapet, were saved through intervention.

The 24th of April has become Genocide Remembrance Day, in order to commemorate the victims of the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire. Most who commemorate the Armenian Genocide believe that 24 April 1915 is the date which the event began. Genocide Remembrance Day was first commemorated in 1919 as in observance of its four-year anniversary in Constantinople. Since then, the Armenian Genocide has been commemorated annually on the same day. Genocide Remembrance Day has become a national holiday in Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and is observed by the Armenian Diaspora around the world.

Detention

Minister of the Interior Mehmed Talaat Bey gave the detention order on 24 April 1915. The operation commenced at 8 p.m.[1] At Constantinople, the action was operated by Chief of Police of Constantinople Bedri Bey.[2]

On the night of 24–25 April 1915, in a first wave 235 to 270 Armenian leaders of Constantinople, clergymen, physicians, editors, journalists, lawyers, teachers, politicians, and others were arrested upon an instruction of the Ministry of the Interior.[3][4][5] The differences in number may be explained by the uncertainties of the police as they imprisoned people with the same names.

There were further deportations from the capital. The first task was to identify those imprisoned. They were held for one day in a police station (Ottoman Turkish: Emniyeti Umumiye) and the Central Prison. A second wave brought the figure to between 500 and 600.[4][6][7][8]

In the end of August 1915 about 150 Armenians with Russian nationality were deported from Constantinople to holding centers.[9] Few of the detained were released the same weekend as writer Alexander Panossian (1859–1919) before even being transferred to Anatolia.[10] In total, it is estimated that 2,345 Armenian notables were detained.[11] Most of them were not nationalist or did not have any tie to any political party.[11]

Holding centers

Most of the arrested were sent after identification of the particulars from Central Prison over Sarai Burnu by steamer No. 67 of the Şirket company to the railway station of Haydarpaşa. After waiting for ten hours, they were sent by special train in the direction of Ankara the next day. The train was under way with 220 Armenians.[12] An Armenian train conductor got a list of names of the deportees. It was handed over to the Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople, Zaven Der Yeghiayan, who right away tried in vain to save as many deportees as possible. The only foreign ambassador to help him in his efforts was US ambassador Henry Morgenthau.[13] After a train journey of 20 hours, the deportees got off in Sincanköy (near Ankara) Tuesday noon. At the station Ibrahim, the director of the Central Prison of Constantinople, did the triage. The deportees were divided into two groups.

One group was sent to Çankırı (and Çorum between Çankırı and Amasia) and the other to Ayaş. Those separated for Ayaş were transported in carts for a couple of hours further to Ayaş. Almost all of them were killed several months later in gorges near Ankara.[14] Only ten (or thirteen)[2] deportees of this group were granted permission to turn back to the capital from Ayaş.[footnote 1]

A group of 20 latecomers arrested on 24 April arrived in Çankırı around 7 or 8 May 1915.[15] Roughly 150 political prisoners were detained in Ayaş, and another 150 intellectual prisoners were detained in Çankırı.[16]

Court martial

Some notables such as Dr. Nazaret Daghavarian and Sarkis Minassian were removed on 5 May from the Ayaş prison and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Daghavarian, Jangülian, Khajag, Minassian and Zartarian to appear before a court martial. They were, seemingly, murdered by the band of brigands led by Cherkes Ahmet, and lieutenants Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır.[10] The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Djemal Pasha in September 1915. The assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo.

Marzbed dispatched to Kayseri to appear before a court martial on 18 May 1915.[17] After his release from the court, he worked under fake Ottoman identity for the Germans in Intilli (Amanus railway tunnel). He escaped to Nusaybin, where he fell from a horse and died right before the armistice.[17]

Release

Many prisoners were released with the help of various influential people intervening on their behalf.[18] Five deportees from Çankırı were freed upon intervention of ambassador Henry Morgenthau.[2]

In total, twelve deportees were granted permission to return to the capital from Çankırı.[footnote 2] These were Komitas Vardapet, Piuzant Kechian, Dr. Vahram Torkomian, Dr. Parsegh Dinanian, Haig Hojasarian, Nshan Kalfayan, Yervant Tolayan, Aram Kalenderian, Noyig Der-Stepanian, Vrtanes Papazian, Karnik Injijian, Beylerian junior. Four deportees were granted permission to come back from Konya.[footnote 2] These were Apig Miubahejian, Atamian, Kherbekian, Nosrigian.[9]

The remaining deportees were under the protection of governor of Ankara Vilayet. Mazhar Bey defied the secret instructions of Talat Pasha, the Interior Minister.[19] By the end of July 1915, Mazhar was replaced by central committee member Atif Bey.[20]

Deportation

After the passage of Tehcir Law on 29 May 1915, Armenians left at the two holding centers were deported to Ottoman Syria. On 11 or 18 July 1915 a first convoy with 56 prisoners arrived at the Çankırı holding center with no survivors.[21]

In August 1915, Atif Bey started the deportation of the Armenians living at the "Ankara Vilayet". On 19 August, a second convoy with 30 deportees left Çankırı. Their fate is better known as two of them survived, one of whom was Aram Andonian.[2][21] This group continued their journey first by train as far as Ankara and then in carts to Çankırı.[14] After a week in the military barracks they were allowed to stay in town at their own expense, with the condition that they remain under supervision, whereas those sent to Ayaş were kept jailed in the garrison.[6][15]

Survivors

After the Armistice of Mudros several surviving Armenian intellectuals came back to Constantinople, which was under allied occupation. They started a short but intense literary activity that was ended by the Turkish victory (1922–23). Those who have written memoirs and books about their accounts during the deportation include Krikor Balakian, Aram Andonian, Yervant Odian, Teotig, and Mikayel Shamtanchyan.[22] Other survivors, such as Komitas Vardapet, developed a serious case of post-traumatic stress disorder which resulted in twenty years of treatment in mental asylums until his death in 1935.[23]

Notable deportees

Below is a list of prominent Armenian intellectuals, community leaders and other public figures that were deported from Constantinople, the Ottoman capital, on April 24, 1915, as made available by the Ottoman archives and Armenian sources:

Name[note 1] Birth date and place[note 2] Fate Political affiliation Occupation Date of
arrest & exile[note 3]
1st place of deportation Notes
Sarkis Abo
Սարգիս Ապօ
Killed Dashnak Teacher 24 April 1915 Ayaş Armenian from Caucasus, killed in Ankara.[17]
Levon Aghababian
Լեւոն Աղապապեան
1887
from Bitlis
Died Mathematician, headmaster of high schools in Kütahya and Akşehir (1908–14), directed his own school in Kütahya for three years[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Died in 1915[24]
Hrant Aghajanian
Հրանդ Աղաճանեան
Killed 24 April 1915 Çankırı Brought to the gallows in Beyazit Square (Constantinople) on 18 January 1916.[9]
Mihran Aghajanian
Միհրան Աղաճանեան
Killed Banker[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Went back to Constantinople where he was brought to the gallows.[17]
Mihran Aghasyan
Միհրան Աղասեան
1854 Killed Poet and musician 1915 Der Zor Deported to Der Zor, where he was killed in 1916.[25]
E. Agnouni (Khachatur Malumian)
Է. Ակնունի (Խաչատուր Մալումեան)
1865
in Zangezur
Killed Dashnak Dashnak militant, newspaper editor, played a role in organizing an assembly of forces in opposition to the Ottoman Sultan, resulting in the proclamation of the Ottoman Constitution in 1908. 24 April 1915 Ayaş Removed from the Ayaş prison on 5 May and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Daghavarian, Jangülian, Khajag, Minassian and Zartarian to appear before a court martial there and they were, seemingly, murdered by the [well-known] band of brigands led by Cherkes Ahmet, and lieutenants Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır.[10] The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo.
Dikran Ajemian
Տիգրան Աճեմեան
Survivor 24 April 1915 Ayaş Went back to Constantinople[17] out of a group of ten deportees from Ayaş.[9]
Dr. Dikran Allahverdi
Տքթ. Տիգրան Ալլահվերտի
Survivor Member of different patriarchal councils 24 April 1915 Ayaş Returned to Constantinople.[17]
Vahan Altunian
Վահան Ալթունեան
Survivor Dentist[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915.[26] He left Çankırı on 6 August 1915, was jailed in Ankara, was displaced to Tarson, arrived in Constantinople on 22 September 1915.[24]
Vahram Altunian
Վահրամ Ալթունեան
Died[24] Merchant[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı
Aram Andonian
Արամ Անտոնեան
1875
in Constantinople
Survivor Hunchak[27] Հնչակեան Վերակազմ[28] Writer and journalist; member of Armenian National Assembly[29] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[2] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, broke his leg, was jailed in Ankara 20–24 August then escaped after hospitalization in Ankara Hospital.[21] He joined another caravan of deportees and returned to Constantinople only after Tarsus, Mardin, Der Zor, Haleb,[24] he stayed in concentration camps around the town of Meskene in the desert,[27] published his experiences in his literary work In those dark days, he edited a collection of telegrams, the authenticity of which is disputed, containing Talat Pasha's extermination orders; he assumed directorship of the AGBU Nubar library in Paris from 1928 to 1951.[30]
V. Arabian
Վ. Արապեան
Patriot or educator[5] 24 April 1915
Sarkis Armdantsi
Սարգիս Արմտանցի
Killed 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
K. Armuni
Գ. Արմունի
Lawyer[5] 24 April 1915
Asadur Arsenian
Ասատուր Արսենեան
Killed Pharmacist[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[2] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat[21] or died near Der Zor.[24]
Arslanian
Արսլանեան
Merchant(?)[24] 1915 Çankırı
Artsruni
Արծրունի
Killed[9] Patriot or educator[5] 24 April 1915 Çankırı
Paruyr Arzumanian
Պարոյր Արզումանեան
Killed 24 April 1915 Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[2] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August, killed en route to Yozgat.[21]
Vahram Asadurian
Վահրամ Ասատուրեան
from Gedikpaşa Survivor[14] Pharmacist 24 April 1915 Çankırı Was deported to Meskene where he served finally in the army as assistant physician and helped Armenian deportees.[24]
H. Asadurian
Յ. Ասատուրեան
Survivor Print office owner[9] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Was granted permission to return.[9]
Harutiun Asdurian
Յարութիւն Աստուրեան
Killed 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Hrant Asdvadzadrian
Հրանդ Աստվածատրեան
Survivor 24 April 1915 Ayaş Returned to Constantinople.[17]
D. Ashkharuni
Տ. Աշխարունի
Patriot or educator[5] 24 April 1915
Atamian
Ադամեան
from Erzurum Survivor Merchant[9] 1915 Konya Was granted permission to return.[9]
Varteres Atanasian
Վարդերես Աթանսեան
1874 Died Hunchak "Headman" (mukhtar) of Feriköy, merchant[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Died in 1916 (?)[24]
Yeghise Kahanay Ayvazian
Եղիսէ Քհնյ. Այվազեան
13 October 1870
in Bolu
Clergyman 1915 Jailed in Constantinople for two months Deported to Konya, Bey Shehir, Konya, Ulukshla, Ereyli (where he met many clergymen from Bardizag), Bozanti, Cardaklik, Tarsus. He left Tarsus on 15 October 1915 in direction of Osmaniye, Islahiye, Tahtaköprü to the outskirts of Aleppo.[5]
Azarik
Ազարիք
Died Pharmacist 24 April 1915 Çankırı Died in Der Zor.[14]
Krikor Balakian
Տ. Գրիգորիս ծ. վարդ. Պալագեան
1879
in Tokat
Survivor Clergyman 24 April 1915 Çankırı Escaped. Lived in Manchester and Marseille after the war — Published his memoirs[31] of exile.[10] Died in Marseille in 1934.
Balassan
Պալասան
Muslim from Persia Killed Adopted as child by Dashnak Doorman and coffee boy for editorial staff of Azadamard 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed despite intervention from Persian Embassy.
Dr. Khachig Bardizbanian
Տքթ. Խաչիկ Պարտիզպանյան
Killed 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Levon Bardizbanian
Լեւոն Պարտիզպանյան
1887
in Kharpert
Dashnak[24] Physician and director of Azadamard 24 April 1915
Vaghinag Bardizbanian
Վաղինակ Պարտիզպանեան
Survivor Official of the Khayrie navigation company[14][24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Zareh Bardizbanian
Զարեհ Պարտիզպանեան
Dentist 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital by special telegramme from Talat Pasha on 7 May 1915.[32] The eight prisoners of this group were notified on Sunday, 9 May 1915, about their release[33] and left Çankırı on 11 May 1915.[26]
Manuk Basmajian
Մանուկ Պասմաճեան
Survivor[24] Architect and intellectual[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Mkrtich Basmajian ("Barsamian"[footnote 3])
Մկրտիչ Պասմաճեան ("Պարսամեան")
Survivor Arms dealer[14] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Sent to İzmit for further interrogations together with other deportees. Fled to Konya. Was deported again, managed to escape half way to Der Zor and turned back to Constantinople.[24]
D. Bazdikian
Տ. Պազտիկեան
Patriot or educator[5] 24 April 1915
Bedig
Պետիկ
Writer, publicist[5] 24 April 1915
Movses Bedrosian
Մովսէս Պետրոսեան
Dashnak Teacher 24 April 1915 Çankırı Set free as he was a Bulgarian national and went back to Sofia.[14]
G. Beylikjian
Կ. Պէյլիքճեան
Merchant[5] 24 April 1915
Khachig Berberian
Խաչիկ Պէրպէրեան
Survivor Teacher[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Returned to Constantinople.[17]
E. Beyazian
Ե. Պէյազեան
Patriot or educator[5] 24 April 1915
Beylerian
Պէյլերեան
son of Hagop Beylerian 24 April 1915 Çankırı
Hagop Beylerian
Յակոբ Պէյլերեան
1843
from Kayseri(?)[34]
Survivor[24] Father of Beylerian son[24] Merchant[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915,[26] died in 1921(?)[34]
Artin Boghosian
Արթին Պօղոսեան
Survivor 24 April 1915 Çankırı "Pardoned on condition on not returning to Constantinople" according to a telegramme from the Ministry of the Interior on 25 August 1915 on the subject of exiles erroneously unlisted in a former 3 August telegramme.[35]
Khachig Boghosian
Խաչիկ Պօղոսեան
Survivor Doctor, psychologist, deputy of the Armenian National Assembly[24] Arrested 24 April 1915, exiled 3 May 1915 Ayaş He arrived in Constantinople after further deportation from Ayaş to Ankara and Aleppo after the armistice.[24] Lived in Aleppo after the war. Founded a hospital. Published his memoirs of exile[10] - d. 1955 in Aleppo.
Hampartsoum Boyadjian (Mourad)
Համբարձում Պօյաճեան (Մուրատ)
1867
in Egn (Saimbeyli today)
Killed Hunchak Doctor, with a long and well-known history of political activity and agitation, one of the first organizers of the Hunchak in 1888 and one of its leaders, principal organizer of the 1890 Kumkapı affray, leader of the 1894–1895 Sasun revolt, after 1908 Armenian National Assembly delegate from Kumkapı and deputy of Ottoman Parliament from Adana. Mourad was his militant name.[10] 24 April 1915 Çankırı He was led to Kayseri to appear before a court martial and then was executed there[17] in 1915.
Piuzant Bozajian
Բիւզանդ Պօզաճեան
Survivor Member of Armenian National Assembly[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Went back to Constantinople.[17]
Gh. Chplakian
Ղ. Չպլաքեան
Survivor 1915 Konya Deported to Konya, Tarsus, Kuşcular, Belemedik. Returned to the capital after the armistice.[9]
Yervant Chavushyan
Երվանդ Չավուշեան
1867
Constantinople[24]
Died Hunchak Armenian scientist, teacher, editor-in-chief of "Tzayn Hayrenyats" newspaper. 24 April 1915 Çankırı Deported to Hamman, Der Zor, where he died from illness.[25] He died at the same time in the same tent in a village near Meskene as Husig A. Kahanay Katchouni.[14]
Chebjie
Ջպճը
Armenian-Catholic[24] Architect 24 April 1915 Çankırı
Dikran Chökürian
Տիգրան Չէօկիւրեան
1884
Gyumushkana
Killed brother of Chökürian below Writer, publicist,[5] teacher and chief editor of Vostan.[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Chökürian
Չէօկիւրեան
brother of Dikran Chökürian Writer, publicist[5] 24 April 1915
Kaspar Cheraz
Գասպար Չերազ
1850
in Hasköy
Survivor Lawyer, public figure, brother of Minas Cheraz 24 April 1915 Çankırı He departed from Çankırı in winter after seven months and survived the next three years as refugee in Uşak together with his companions Hovhan Vartaped Garabedian, Mikayel Shamtanchian, Vartan Kahanay Karagözian from Feriköy. After the armistice he returned to Constantinople.[5] He was deported instead of his brother Minas Cheraz who emigrated to France, Kaspar Cheraz died in 1928 in Constantinople.[24]
K. Chukhajian
Գ. Չուհաճեան
Merchant[5] 24 April 1915
Aharon Dadurian
Ահարոն Տատուրեան
1886
in Ovacik (near İzmit)
Survivor Poet[9] 1915 Eregli Returned to Constantinople after the armistice.[9] After a brief sojourn in Constantinople and Bulgaria, he pursued his studies in Prague (1923–28) and settled in France in the late 1920s. He died in 1965.[30]
Dr. Nazaret Daghavarian
Տքթ. Նազարէթ Տաղաւարեան
1862
Sebastia
Killed Physician, director of Surp Prgitch Hospital, deputy in the Ottoman parliament, deputy for Sivas in the Armenian National Assembly, founding member of Armenian General Benevolent Union. 24 April 1915 Ayaş Removed from the Ayaş prison on 5 May and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Agnouni, Jangülian, Khajag, Minassian and Zartarian to appear before a court martial there and they were, seemingly, murdered by the [well-known] band of brigands led by Cherkes Ahmet, and lieutenants Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır,[10] killed on the way to Urfa.[17] The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo.
Danielian
Դանիելեան
Survivor[14] Hunchak Tailor[14] 24 April 1915 Çankırı
Boghos Danielian
Պօղոս Դանիելեան
Died Dashnak Lawyer[5] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Died in Der Zor.[14]
Garabed Deovletian
Կարապետ Տէօվլեթեան
Survivor Official of the mint[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Nerses Der-Kaprielian (Shahnour)
Ներսես Տէր- Գաբրիէլեան (Շահնուր)
from Kayseri Killed 24 April 1915 Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[2] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat.[21]
Noyig Der-Stepanian[footnote 4]
Նոյիկ Տեր-Ստեփանեան
from Erzincan[24] Survivor Commission agent, merchant and banker[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915.[26] About 40 members of his family died.[24]
Dr. Parsegh Dinanian
Տքթ. Բարսեղ Տինանեան
Survivor Physician 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915.[26] One of the organizers of the commemoration ceremony of 24 April 1919.[24]
K. Diratsvian
Գ. Տիրացուեան
Writer, publicist[5] 24 April 1915
Khor. Dkhruni
Խոր. Տխրունի
Writer, publicist[5] 24 April 1915
Dr. Krikor Djelal
Տքթ. Գրիգոր Ճելալ
Survivor Hunchak[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Dr. Missak Djevahirdjian
Տքթ. Միսաք Ճէվահիրճեան
1858
from Kayseri
Survivor Physician (gynaecologist at the court), member of a tribunal council[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital on 11 May 1915.[26] The eight prisoners of this group were notified on Sunday, 9 May 1915, about their release[33] and left Çankırı on 11 May 1915.[26] Was set free with the help of his friend Pesin Omer Paşa, died in 1924.[24]
Armen Dorian Hrachia Surenian; Husian(?)
Արմեն Տորեան (Հրաչյա Սուրենեան)
1892
Sivas
Killed French-Armenian poet,[25] editor of "Arene" weekly (Paris), founder of the Pantheist school. 24 April 1915 Çankırı Finished Sorbonne University in 1914 and returned to Constantinople. Deported to Çankırı, killed in Anatolian desert;[25] was jailed in Ankara after Çankırı and killed according to Nshan Kalfayan,[24] killed near Ankara.[14]
Chris Fenerjian
(Silvio Ricci)
Survivor 24 April 1915 Ayaş Set free as Bulgarian national and returned to Bulgaria.[9][17]
Parunak Ferukhan
Բարունակ Ֆէրուխան
1884
in Constantinople[24]
Killed Official of Bakırköy (Makriköy) administration and violinist[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[2] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat.[21]
Bedros Kahanay Garabedian
Պետրոս Քհնյ. Կարապետեան
1858
in Rodosto
Clergyman 24 April 1915
Hovhan Vartaped Garabedian
Յովհան Վրդ. Կարապետեան
22 June 1888
in Brusa
Survivor Clergyman, M.A. of University of Columbia, secretary of patriarch Zaven[5] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Studied in the United States, came back in 1914 and was ordained priest on 16 June 1914 in Echmiadzin. He departed from Çankırı in winter after seven months and survived the next three years as refugee in Uşak together with his companions Kaspar Cheraz, Mikayel Shamtanchian, Vartan Kahanay Karagözian from Feriköy. After the armistice he returned to Constantinople and became priest in Gedikpaşa and Balat, member of the religious council. From 20 July 1919 – 5 August 1920 he was elected primate of İzmir. Later he got a higher degree as celibate priest (Ծ. Վրդ.). On 8 January 1921 he left for America and became priest of the St. Lusavorich church in New York.[5] He survived and left the clergy.[14]
Mkrtich Garabedian
Մկրտիչ Կարապետեան
Survivor Armenian-Catholic[9] 1915 Ayaş Granted permission to return to capital as he was wrongly imprisoned in place of the teacher with same name.[9]
Ghazaros
Ղազարոս
Dashnak 24 April 1915 Çankırı Deported in lieu of Marzbed (Ghazar Ghazarian).[24]
Ghonchegülian
Ղոնչէկիւլեան
Died Merchant from Akn[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Died near Meskene.[14]
Gigo
(Krikor Torossian)
Կիկօ (Գրիգոր Թորոսեան)
Killed Editor of the satirical newspaper Gigo[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Dr. Gülustanian
Տքթ. Կիւլուստանեան
Killed[10] / Survivor[14][24] Dentist 24 April 1915 Çankırı "Permitted to reside freely in Çankırı" according to a telegramme from the Ministry of the Interior on 25 August 1915 on the subject of exiles erroneously unlisted in a former 3 August telegramme.[35] Killed in a village called Tüney in 1915, together with Ruben Sevak, Daniel Varoujan and Mağazacıyan[10] in a group of five.
Dr. Melkon Gülustanian
Տքթ. Մելքոն Կիւլուստանեան
Survivor relative of his namesake in Çankırı[24] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Set free and went back to Constantinople.[17]
Haig Goshgarian
Հայկ Կօշկոարեան
Survivor Editor of Odian and Gigo 1915 Der Zor Survived deportation to Der Zor and returned to the capital after the armistice.[9]
Reverend Grigorian
Սուրբ Հայր Գրիգորեան
Pastor and editor of Avetaper[14] 24 April 1915 Çankırı
Melkon Gülesserian
Մելքոն Կիւլեսերեան
Survivor 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Mihrdat Haigazn
Միհդատ Հայկազն
Killed Dashnak Patriot or educator,[5] member of Armenian National Assembly, umbrella merchant.[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Banished a couple of times and then killed in Ankara.[17]
K. Hajian
Գ. Հաճեան
Pharmacist 24 April 1915 Çankırı Came back from Çankırı after the armistice.[24]
Hampartsum Hampartsumian
Համբարձում Համբարձումեան
Killed Writer, publicist[5] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Hovhannes Hanisian
Յովհաննէս Հանիսեան
Survivor 24 April 1915 Çankırı "Pardoned on condition on not returning to Constantinople" according to a telegramme from the Ministry of the Interior on 25 August 1915 on the subject of exiles erroneously unlisted in a former 3 August telegramme.[35]
Ardashes Harutunian
Արտաշես Յարութիւնեան
1873
Malkara (near Rodosto)
Killed Writer, publicist[5] 28 July 1915 Stayed in Üsküdar on 24 April 1915. Was arrested on 28 July 1915 and severely beaten at the Müdüriyet. When his father came to see him he was imprisoned as well. Father and son were deported together with 26 Armenians to Nicomedia (modern İzmit) and jailed in the Armenian church converted into a prison. Finally stabbed to death together with his father near Derbent on 16 August 1915.[9]
Abraham Hayrikian
Աբրահամ Հայրիկեան
Killed Turkologist, director of Ardi college, member of Armenian National Assembly[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
K. Hiusian
Գ. Հիւսեան
Patriot or educator[5] 24 April 1915
Haig Hojasarian
Հայկ Խօճասարեան
Survivor Teacher, educator, headmaster of Bezciyan school (1901–1924),[34] politician in Ramgavar 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital mid-June 1915, deputy of the Armenian National Assembly in 1919[24] became later chancellor of the Diocese of the Armenian Church of America.[10]
Mkrtich Hovhannessian
Մկրտիչ Յովհաննէսեան
Killed Dashnak Teacher 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Mkrtich Hovhannessian
Մկրտիչ Յովհաննէսեան
Survivor 24 April 1915 Ayaş Deported in lieu of Dashnak member Mkritch Hovhannessian, returned to Constantinople.[17]
Hrant (pen name)
born as Melkon Giurdjian
Հրանդ (Մելքոն Կիւրճեան)
Killed Dashnak Writer, publicist,[5] armenologist, member of Armenian National Assembly[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Krikor Hürmüz
Գրիգոր Հիւրմիւզ
Killed[9] Writer, publicist[5] 24 April 1915
Khachig Idarejian
Խաչիկ Իտարէճեան
Killed Teacher 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Karnik Injijian
Գարնիկ Ինճիճեան
Survivor[14] Merchant[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Came free upon request.[9]
Aris Israelian (Dkhruni)
Արիս Իսրայէլեան (Տխրունի)
1885 Died Dashnak Teacher, writer 24 April 1915 Çankırı Was in Konya in 1916, died later under unknown circumstances.[14][24]
Apig Jambaz
ԱբիԿ Ճամպազ
from Pera[24] Died[24] Armenian-Catholic[24] Merchant[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Harutiun Jangülian
Յարութիւն Ճանկիւլեան
1855
in Van
Killed Hunchak One of the organizers of the 1890 Kumkapı affray, political activist, member of Armenian National Assembly, published his memoirs in 1913. 24 April 1915 Ayaş Dispatched to Diyarbakir, but executed after Aleppo between Urfa and Severek by Haci Tellal Hakimoglu (Haci Onbasi)[36]

- Removed from the Ayaş prison on 5 May and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Daghavarian, Agnouni, Khajag, Minassian and Zartarian to appear before a court martial there and they were, seemingly, murdered by the [well-known] band of brigands led by Cherkes Ahmet, and lieutenants Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır.[10] The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo.

Aram Kalenderian
Արամ Գալէնտերեան
Survivor Official of the Ottoman Bank[14] 24 April 1915 Was set free.[9]
Harutiun Kalfayan
Յարութիւն Գալֆաեան
in Üsküdar Died Hunchak Director of Arhanyan College 24 April 1915 Çankırı Died in 1915.[10] Not to be confused with his namesake, also a deportee but a Dashnak member, who was mayor of Bakırköy (Makriköy) quarter of the capital.
Harutiun Kalfayan
Յարութիւն Գալֆաեան[footnote 5]
1870
in Talas
Died in Ankara[24] Dashnak Lawyer, mayor of Bakırköy (Makriköy) 24 April 1915 Çankırı Died in 1915.[10] Uncle of Nshan Kalfayan.[24] Not to be confused with his namesake, also a deportee but a Hunchak member, who was a schoolmaster.
Nshan Kalfayan
Նշան Գալֆաեան
16 April 1865
in Üsküdar[37]
Survivor Agronomist, lecturer in agriculture at Berberyan school[34] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915.[26] Moved to Greece in 1924. Was invited to Persia in 1927 to administer properties of the Shah. Was a correspondent for the Académie française.[24]
Kantaren[24]
Գանթարեն
1915 Çankırı
Rafael Karagözian
Survivor 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital by a telegramme from Talat Pasha on 7 May 1915.[32]
Takvor (?) Karagözian
Թագվոր (՞) Գարակէոզեան
Merchant[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı
Vartan Kahanay Karagözian
Վարդան Քհնյ. Գարակէոզեան
15 July 1877
in Kumkapı, Constantinople
Survived Clergyman from Feriköy 24 April 1915 Çankırı He departed from Çankırı in winter after seven months and survived the next three years as refugee in Uşak together with his companions Hovhan Vartaped Garabedian, Kaspar Cheraz, Mikayel Shamtanchian. After the armistice he returned to Constantinople.[5]
Aristakes Kasparian
Արիստակէս Գասպարեան
1861
in Adana
Killed Lawyer, businessman, member of Armenian National Assembly 24 April 1915 Ayaş[17] Killed in Ankara.[17]
Husig A. Kahanay Katchouni
Յուսիկ Ա. Քհնյ. Քաշունի
1851
in Arapgir
Died Dashnak[24] Clergyman 24 April 1915 Çankırı Was deported further and died from illness in a village near Meskene. He died at the same time in the same tent as Yervant Chavushyan.[14]
Kevork Kayekjian
Գէորգ Գայըգճեան
Killed Merchant[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[2] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat.[21] Three Kayekjian brothers were deported and killed altogether near Ankara.[24]
Levon Kayekjian
Լևոն Գայըգճեան
Killed Merchant[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[2] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat.[21] Three Kayekjian brothers were deported and killed altogether near Ankara.[24]
Mihran Kayekjian
Միհրան Գայըգճեան
Killed Merchant[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[2] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat.[21] Three Kayekjian brothers were deported and killed altogether near Ankara.[24]
Dr. Kahanay Arshak Kazazian
Տքթ. Քհնյ. Արշակ Գազազեան
Survivor[14] Clergyman 24 April 1915 Çankırı
Piuzant Kechian
Բիւզանդ Քէչեան
1859 Survivor Editor, owner of influential newspaper Piuzantion, historian 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital by special telegramme from Talat Pasha on 7 May 1915.[32] The eight prisoners of this group were notified on Sunday, 9 May 1915, about their release[33] and left Çankırı on 11 May 1915.[26] Returned to Constantinople on 1 May 1915 [old calendar](?) and stayed in Plovdiv, Bulgaria, until the end of the war,[18] died in 1927[34] or 1928.[24]
Vahan Kehiayan (Dökmeji Vahan)
Վահան Քէհեաեան
1874
in Urfa
Hunchak Patriot or educator[5] and craftsman[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Killed on 26 August 1915 together with Ruben Sevak, Daniel Varoujan, Onnik Maghazajian, Artin Kocho.[24]
Diran Kelekian
Տիրան Քէլէկեան
1862
Kayseri
Killed Ramgavar[14] Writer, university professor, publisher of a popular Turkish language newspapar, Sabah,[38] freemason, author of a French-Turkish dictionary which is still a reference.[39] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to reside with his family anywhere outside the capital by special order from Talat Pasha on 8 May 1915,[40] chose Smyrna, but was taken under military escort to Çorum to appear before a court martial and was killed on 20 October 1915 on the way to Sivas between Yozgat and Kayseri near the bridge Cokgöz on the Kizilirmak.[21]
Akrig Kerestejian
Ագրիկ Քերեսթեճեան
1855
in Kartal
Died[24] Merchant of wood[24] (coincides with the literal meaning of his name) 24 April 1915
Rev. Garabed Keropian
Պատ. Կարապետ Քերոբեան
from Balıkesir[5] Survivor Pastor[footnote 6] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital by special telegramme from Talat Pasha on 7 May 1915.[32] The eight prisoners of this group were notified on Sunday, 9 May 1915, about their release[33] and left Çankırı on 11 May 1915.[26] He went to America.[5]
Dr. Mirza Ketenjian
Տքթ. Միրզա Քեթենենճեան
Survivor[14] Dashnak 24 April 1915
Karekin Khajag
born as Karekin Chakalian
Գարեգին Խաժակ (Գարեգին Չագալեան)
1867
in Alexandropol
Killed Dashnak Newspaper editor, teacher. 24 April 1915 Ayaş Removed from the Ayaş prison on 5 May and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Daghavarian, Agnouni, Jangülian, Minassian and Zartarian to appear before a court martial there and they were, seemingly, murdered by the [well-known] band of brigands led by Cherkes Ahmet, and lieutenants Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır.[10] The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo.
A. Khazkhazian
Ա. Խազխազեան
Merchant[5] 24 April 1915
Kherbekian
Խերպէկեան
from Erzurum Merchant[9] 1915 Konya Was granted permission to return.[9]
Hovhannes Kilijian
Յովհաննէս Գըլըճեան
Killed Bookseller[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Sarkis Kiljian (S. Srents)
Սարգիս Գըլճեան (Ս. Սրենց)
Survivor Dashnak Teacher, writer, publicist 24 April 1915 Çankırı Escaped from Çankırı to Konya and became Deputy of the Armenian National Assembly in 1919.[24]
Hovhannes Kımpetyan (Kmpetian)
Յովհաննէս Գմբթեան
1894 Killed Armenian poet[25] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Killed during the deportation in Ras al-Ain.
Artin Kocho Harutiun Pekmezian(?)
Գոչո Արթին (Յարութիւն Բեքմեզեան)
Killed Bread seller in Ortaköy[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Was killed by 12 çetes on 26 August 1915 6 hours after Çankırı near the han of Tüneh in a group of five.[24]
(Kevork or Hovhannes) Köleyan
(Գէորգ կամ Յովհաննէս) Գէոլէեան
Killed 24 April 1915 Çankırı Killed near Ankara.[14]
Nerses (Der-) Körkian
Ներսես (Տէր-) Գէորգեան
Merchant[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Was betrayed by a competitor.[24]
Komitas Vardapet Soghomonian
Կոմիտաս Վարդապետ Սողոմոնյան
1869
in Kütahya
Survivor Priest, composer, ethnomusicologist, founder of a number choirs[footnote 7] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital by special telegramme from Talat Pasha on 7 May 1915.[32] The eight prisoners of this group were notified on Sunday, 9 May 1915, about their release[33] and left Çankırı on 11 May 1915[26] - developed a severe form of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and spent twenty years in virtual silence in mental asylums, died 1935 in Paris.[33]
Harutiun Konyalian
Յարութիւն Գօնիալեան
Killed Tailor[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Hagop Korian
Յակոբ Գորեան
from Akn, in his seventies[24] Survivor Merchant, occasionally a teacher[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915.[26] He left Çankırı on 6 August 1915, was jailed in Ankara, was displaced to Tarson, arrived in Constantinople on 22 September 1915.[24]
Kosmos[24]
Կոզմոս
1915 Çankırı
Shavarsh Krissian
Շաւարշ Քրիսեան
Killed Dashnak[17] Writer, publicist,[5] teacher,[17] editor of the first sports magazine of the Ottoman Empire "Marmnamarz"[41] 24 April 1915 Ayaş He organized gym exercises in Ayaş. Until the deportees of Ayaş had learned about the 20 Hunchakian gallows of 15 June 1915, they weren't realising the severity of their situation.[36] The exercises were viewed by the Turkish guards with great suspicion.[12] Shavarsh Krissian was killed in Ankara.[17]
M. Kundakjian
Մ. Գունտագճեան
Lawyer[5] 24 April 1915
Levon Larents (Kirishchiyan)
Լեւոն Լարենց Քիրիշճեան
1882 Killed Hunchak Poet, translator, professor of literature. 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed during the deportation in Ankara.[17][25]
Onnik Maghazajian
Օննիկ Մաղազաճեան
1878
in Constantinople
Killed Chairman of Kumkapı Progressive Society Cartographer, bookseller 24 April 1915 Çankırı "Permitted to reside freely in Çankırı" according to a telegramme from the Ministry of the Interior on 25 August 1915 on the subject of exiles erroneously unlisted in a former 3 August telegramme.[35] Killed in a village called Tüney in 1915, together with Ruben Sevak, Daniel Varoujan and Gülistanian[10] in a group of five.[21]
Asdvadzadur Manesian (Maniassian)
Աստվածատուր Մանեսեան
Survivor[14] Merchant[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı
Bedros Manikian
Պետրոս Մանիկեան
Çankırı Survivor[14] Pharmacist[24] 24 April 1915
Vrtanès Mardiguian
Վրթանէս Մարտիկեան
Survivor 24 April 1915 Ayaş Deported in a group of 50 persons to Ankara, 5 May 1915, dispatched to Ayaş on 7 May 1915, set free in July 1915,[36] returned to Constantinople.[17]
Marzbed
(Ghazar Ghazarian)
Մարզպետ (Ղազար Ղազարեան)
Died Dashnak Teacher 24 April 1915 Ayaş Dispatched around 18 May 1915 to Kayseri to appear before a court martial,[36] worked under fake Turkish identity for the Germans in Intilli (Amanus railway tunnel), escaped to Nusaybin where he fell from a horse and died right before the armistice.[17]
A. D. Mateossian
Ա. Տ. Մատթէոսեան
Lawyer, writer[5] 24 April 1915
Melik Melikian[24]
Մելիք
Killed 1915 Çankırı
Simon Melkonian
Սիմոն Մելքոնեան
from Ortaköy[24] Survivor[24] Architect[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Theodoros Menzikian
Թ. Մենծիկեան
Killed Merchant[5] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Sarkis Minassian
born as Aram Ashot
Սարգիս Մինասեան
1873
in Çengiler, Yalova
Killed Dashnak[17] Chief editor of Droshak,[17] Editor of Armenian newspaper in Boston till 1909, teacher, writer and political activist in the Ottoman capital after 1909; member of Armenian National Assembly[29] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Removed from the Ayaş prison on 5 May and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Daghavarian, Agnouni, Jangülian, Khajag and Zartarian to appear before a court martial there and they were, seemingly, murdered by the [well-known] band of brigands led by Cherkes Ahmet, and lieutenants Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır.[10] The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo.
Krikor Miskjian
Գրիգոր Միսքճեան
1865 Killed[24] brother of Stepan Miskjian[24] Pharmacist[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[2] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat,[21] killed near Ankara.[14][24]
Dr. Stepan Miskjian
Տքթ. Ստեփան Միսքճեան
1852
in Constantinople
Killed[24] brother of Krikor Miskjian[24] Physician[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[2] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat,[21] killed near Ankara.[14][24]
Vartabed Garabed Mkrtichian
Վրդ. Կարապետ Մկրտիչեան
Clergyman 24 April 1915
Zareh Momjian
Զարեհ Մոմճեան
Killed Translator at the Russian Consulate 24 April 1915 Çankırı "Pardoned on condition on not returning to Constantinople" according to a telegramme from the Ministry of the Interior on 25 August 1915 on the subject of exiles erroneously unlisted in a former 3 August telegramme.[35] Belonged to the second convoy with only two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat.[21]
Apig Mübahejian
ԱբիԿ Միւպահեճեան
Survivor Publicist 1915 Konya Was granted permission to return.[9]
Dr. Avedis Nakashian
Տքթ. Ավետիս Նագաշեան
Survivor Physician 24 April 1915 Ayaş Was set free 23 July 1915, sent his family to Bulgaria, served in the Ottoman army as captain in the Gülhane Hospital at the time of the Gallipoli campaign and immigrated to the US.[12]
Dr. Nakulian
Տքթ. Նագուլեան
Survivor Doctor 24 April 1915, exiled 3 May 1915 Ayaş Was free to move in Ayaş, returned later to the capital.[10]
Hagop Nargilejian
Յակոբ Նարկիլէճեան
Survivor Pharmacist in the army[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital by special telegramme from Talat Pasha on 7 May 1915.[32] The eight prisoners of this group were notified on Sunday, 9 May 1915, about their release[33] and left Çankırı on 11 May 1915.[26]
Markos Natanian
Մարկոս Նաթանեան
Survivor Member of Armenian National Assembly[29] 1915 Çorum Survived deportation to Çorum and later to Iskiliben, was permitted to go back.[9]
Hrant Nazarian
Հրանդ Նազարեան
24 April 1915 Çankırı
Serovpe Noradungian
Սերովբէ Նորատունկեան
Killed Dashnak Teacher at the Sanassarian college and member of Armenian National Assembly[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Nosrigian
Նօսրիկեան
from Erzurum Survivor Merchant 1915 Konya Was granted permission to return.[9]
Nshan
Նշան
Killed Tattooist in Kumkapı[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Nshan Odian
Նշան Օտեան
Hunchak[36] 24 April 1915 Ayaş
Yervant Odian
Երվանդ Օտեան
1869
in Constantinople
Survivor Writer August 1915 Ayaş Accompanied Karekin Vrtd. Khatchaturian (prelate of Konia) from Tarson to Osmanieh.[42] Islamized in 1916 under the name Aziz Nuri[9] in Hama. After failed attempts to escape from Der Zor Odian worked in a factory for military uniforms together with Armenian deportees from Aintab. Soon afterwards he became translator to the military commander of Der Zor. Finally he was orderly to the commander Edwal of the German garrison in Der Zor and gave account of the killing of the last deportees from Constantinople in the prison of Der Zor as late as January 1918 and described that all the policemen and officials kept Armenian women.[43]
Aram Onnikian
Արամ Օննիկեան
Survivor[14] (son of Krikor Onnikian) Merchant,[5] chemist[14] 24 April 1915 Çankırı
Hovhannes Onnikian
Յովհաննէս Օննիկեան
Died (son of Krikor Onnikian) Merchant[5] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Died from illness in Hajkiri near Çankırı.[14]
Krikor Onnikian
Գրիգոր Օննիկեան
1840 Died (father of Aram, Hovhannes and Mkrtich Onnikian) Merchant[5] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Died from illness in Çankırı.[14]
Mkrtich Onnikian
Մկրտիչ Օննիկեան
Died (son of Krikor Onnikian) Merchant[5] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Died in Der Zor.[14]
Panaghogh
Փանաղող
Writer, publicist[5] 24 April 1915
Shavarsh Panossian
Շաւարշ Փանոսեան
Survivor Teacher from Pera.[9] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Was granted permission to return.[9]
Nerses Papazian (Vartabed Mashtots)
Ներսես Փափազեան
Killed Dashnak Editor of Azadamard,[17] Patriot or educator[5] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Vrtanes Papazian
Վրթանէս Փափազեան
Survivor Tailor[9] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Wrongly deported as he bore the same name as the novelist who escaped to Bulgaria and later to Russia.[9] Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Ardashes Parisian
Արտաշես Փարիսեան
Survivor[14] Merchant[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı
Dr. Parseghian
Տքթ. Բարսեղեան
Survivor 1915 Ayaş Granted permission to return.[9]
Dr. Armenag Parseghian
Տքթ. Արմենակ Բարսեղեան
Survivor[24] Dashnak[24] Teacher, studied philosophy in Berlin, lived in Pera[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
H. Parseghian
Յ. Բարսեղեան
Patriot or educator[5] 24 April 1915
Kegham Parseghian
Գեղամ Բարսեղեան
Killed Dashnak Writer, publicist,[5] editor, teacher[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Sarkis Parseghian (Shamil)
Սարգիս Բարսեղեան (Շամիլ)
Killed[24] Patriot or educator[5] 24 April 1915 Ayaş
Dr. Garabed Pashayan Khan
Տքթ. Կարապետ Փաշայեան Խան
1864
in Constantinople
Killed Dashnak Physician, writer[5] former deputy of the Ottoman parliament, member of Armenian National Assembly[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş First tortured[44] and then killed in Ankara.[17]
Dz. Vartabed Yervant Perdahjian
Ծ. վարդ. Երվանդ Փէրտահճեան
Clergyman 24 April 1915
M. Piosian
Մ. Փիոսեան
Patriot or educator[5] 24 April 1915
Smpad Piurad
Der-Ghazaryants
Սմբատ Բիւրատ
Տեր-Ղազարեանց
1862
in Zeytun (Süleymanlı today)
Died Novelist, public figure, member of Armenian National Assembly[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş[17] Killed in Ankara.[17]
G. Reisian
Կ. Րէյիսեան
Merchant[5] 24 April 1915
Rostom (Riustem Rostomiants)
Րոստոմ (Րիւսթէմ Րոստոմեանց)
Killed Merchant[5] and public figure[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Vramshabuh Samueloff
Վրամշապուհ Սամուէլօֆ
Killed Merchant[5] Armenian from Russia, banker 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Sarafian[24]
Սարաֆեան
24 April 1915 Çankırı
Garabed Sarafian
Կարապետ Սարաֆեան
Killed Public official 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Sato
Սաթօ
Patriot or educator[5] 24 April 1915
Jak Sayabalyan (Pailag)
Ժագ Սայապալեան (Փայլակ)
1880
in Konya
Killed Armenian National Assembly Interpreter for the British Consul in Konya between 1901 and 1905, then vice-consul for a year and a half. After 1909, journalist in the capital. 24 April 1915 Çankırı Killed in Ankara.[17]
Margos Sefer
Մարկոս Սեֆեր
Survivor Lawyer[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Was deported in place of Markos Natanian and returned to Constantinople.[17]
Vartkes Hovhannes Serengülian
Վարդգէս Յովհաննէս Սէրէնկիւլեան
1871

in Erzurum

Killed Deputy in the Ottoman parliament 21 May 1915[45] or 2 June 1915[46] Dispatched to Diyarbakır to appear before a court martial Same as Krikor Zohrab.[47] (Cherkes Ahmet and Halil were led to Damascus and executed there on orders from Cemal Pasha, in connection with the murder of the two deputies, in 30 September 1915, Nazım had died in a fight before that.)
Baghdasar Sarkisian
Պաղտասար Սարգիսեան
Survivor 24 April 1915 Çankırı "Pardoned on condition on not returning to Constantinople" according to a telegramme from the Ministry of the Interior on 25 August 1915 on the subject of exiles erroneously unlisted in a former 3 August telegramme.[35]
Margos Servet Effendi (Prudian)
Մարկոս Սէրվէթ
Survivor Lawyer from Kartal[9] 1915 Ayaş Was granted permission to return.[9]
Ruben Sevak pen name (Dr. Ruben Chilingirian)
Ռուբէն Սեւակ (Տոքթ. Ռուբէն Չիլինկիրեան)
1885
in Silivri
Killed Physician, prominent poet and writer, formerly captain in the Ottoman Army during the Balkan Wars 22 June 1915[48] Çankırı "Permitted to reside freely in Çankırı" according to a telegramme from the Ministry of the Interior on 25 August 1915 on the subject of exiles erroneously unlisted in a former 3 August telegramme.[35] Killed in a village called Tüney in 1915, together with Gülistanyan, Daniel Varoujan and Mağazacıyan[10] in a group of five.[21] His house in Elmadağı, Constantinople is now a museum.[49]
Shahbaz[footnote 8]
Շահպազ
Patriot or educator[5] 24 April 1915
Parsegh Shahbaz
Բարսեղ Շահպազ
1883
in Boyacıköy, Constantinople
Killed Dashnak Lawyer,[17] journalist, columnist 24 April 1915 Çankırı "Murdered on Harput-Malatya road."[10][17] On 6 July 1915, in a letter to Miss. Zaruhi Bahri and Evgine Khachigian, Parsegh Shahbaz wrote from Aintab that due to his wounded feet and stomachaches, he will rest for 6–7 days until he has to continue the 8–10 days journey to M. Aziz. But he had no idea why he was sent there.[9] According to B. Vahe-Haig (Պ. Վահէ-Հայկ), survivor of the massacre of Harput, Parsegh Shahbaz was jailed 8 days after the massacre in the central prison of Mezre. Parsegh Shahbaz remained without food for a week and was severely beaten and finally killed by gendarmes under the wall of 'the factory'.[9]
A. Shahen
Ա. Շահէն
Patriot or educator[5] 24 April 1915
Yenovk Shahen
Ենովք Շահէն
Killed Actor[5] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Sarkis Shahinian
Սարգիս Շահինեան
Survivor 24 April 1915 Çankırı "Pardoned on condition on not returning to Constantinople" according to a telegramme from the Ministry of the Interior on 25 August 1915 on the subject of exiles erroneously unlisted in a former 3 August telegramme.[35]
Harutiun Shahrigian (Adom)
Յարութիւն Շահրիկեան (Ատոմ)
1860
in Shabin-Karahisar
Killed Dashnak Dashnak leader, lawyer, member of Armenian National Assembly. 24 April 1915 Ayaş[17][24] First tortured[44] and then killed in Ankara.[17]
Levon Shamtanchian
Լեւոն Շամտանճեան
Survivor 24 April 1915 Ayaş Deported in lieu of Mikayel Shamtanchian, returned to Constantinople.[9][17]
Mikayel Shamtanchian
Միքայէլ Շամտանճեան
1874 Survivor Friend of Dikran Chökürian Newspaper editor at Vostan, writer, lecturer, leader in the Armenian National Assembly 24 April 1915 Çankırı He departed from Çankırı in winter after seven months and survived the next three years as refugee in Uşak together with his companions Hovhan Vartaped Garabedian, Kaspar Cheraz, Vartan Kahanay Karagözian from Feriköy. After the armistice he returned to Constantinople.[5] Published his memoirs of exile after the war.[10] - d. 1926[34]
Levon Shashian
Լեւոն Շաշեան
Killed Merchant[5] 24 April 1915 Killed in Der Zor.[9]
Siamanto (Adom Yerdjanian)
Սիամանթօ (Ատոմ Եարճանեան)
1878
in Akn
Killed Dashnak[17] Poet, writer, member of Armenian National Assembly[17] 24 April 1915 Killed in Ankara.[17]
Krikor Siurmeian
Գրիգոր Սիւրմէեան
Survivor Father of Artavazd V. Siurmeian.[9] 1915 Ayaş Was granted permission to return to the capital.[9]
Onnig Srabian (Onnig Jirayr)
Օննիկ Սրապեան (Օննիկ Ժիրայր)
Killed Teacher 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Yeghia Sughikian
Եղիա Սուղիկեան
Writer, publicist[5] 24 April 1915 Met Yervant Odian and Aram Andonian in September 1915 while working in the mill of Aram and Ardashes Shalvarjian in Tarson (supplying daily 30,000 Ottoman soldiers with flour).[42]
S. Svin
Ս. Սուին
Patriot or educator[5] 24 April 1915
Mihran Tabakian
Միհրան Թապագեան
1878
from Adapazar[24]
Killed Dashnak[24] Teacher and writer[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[2] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat.[21]
Garabed Tashjian
Կարապետ Թաշճեան
Killed 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Garabed Tashjian
Կարապետ Թաշճեան
Survivor Butcher[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Was deported in lieu of Garabed Tashjian jailed in Ayaş, came free and returned to the capital.[24]
Stepan Tatarian
Ստեփան Թաթարեան
Survivor[24] Merchant[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Dispatched to Kayseri to appear before a court martial (where he was an eyewitness to executions[9]). Was joined by a group of four from Ayaş beginning of July.[26] Survived deportation from Çankırı to Kayseri to Aleppo and returned to Constantinople after the armistice.[24]
Hagop Tekeyan
Յակոբ Թէքէեան
24 April 1915
Kevork Terjumanian
Գէորգ Թէրճիմանեան
Killed Ayaş Merchant[5] 24 April 1915 Killed in Ankara.[17]
Ohannes Terlemezian
Օհաննես Թէրլէմէզեան
from Van Survivor[24] Money changer[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915.[26] One of the last who came free from Çankırı. He left Çankırı on 6 August 1915, was jailed in Ankara, came to Tarson, arrived in Constantinople on 22 September 1915.[24]
Hagop Terzian
Յակոբ Թէրզեան
1879 Killed Hunchak Pharmacist 24 April 1915 Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[2] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat,[21] killed near Ankara.[14]
Haig Tiriakian
Հայկ Թիրեաքեան
about 60 years old[17] Survivor Cashier of Phoenix[9] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Deported instead of his Dashnak homonym. Went back to Constantinople.[9][17]
Hrach (Haig Tiriakian)
Հրաչ (Հայկ Թիրեաքեան)
1871
in Trabzon
Killed Dashnak Member of Armenian National Assembly[17] 24 April 1915 Çankırı[17] After learning that another Haig Tiriakian had been detained in Ayaş he demanded his namesake's release and his own transfer from Çankırı to Ayaş. He was later killed in Ankara.[17]
Yervant Tolayan
Երվանդ Թօլայեան
1883 Survivor Theater director, playwright, editor of the satirical journal Gavroche 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital by special telegramme from Talat Pasha on 7 May 1915.[32][50] The eight prisoners of this group were notified on Sunday, 9 May 1915, about their release[33] and left Çankırı on 11 May 1915.[26] Yervant Tolayan died in 1937.[34]
Dr. Hagop Topjian
Տքթ. Յակոբ Թօփճեան
1876 Survivor Ramgavar Editor[footnote 9] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital mid-June 1915,[10] died in 1951.[34]
Torkom
Թորգոմ
Patriot or educator[5] 24 April 1915
Dr. Vahram Torkomian
Տքթ. Վահրամ Թորգոմեան
20 April 1858[51]
in Constantinople
Survivor Physician,[footnote 10] medical historian 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital by special telegramme from Talat Pasha on 7 May 1915.[32] The eight prisoners of this group were notified on Sunday, 9 May 1915, about their release[33] and left Çankırı on 11 May 1915.[26] He moved to France in 1922.[34] He published a book after the war (a list of Armenian doctors) in Évreux, France in 1922 and a study on Ethiopean Taenicide-Kosso[52] in Antwerp in 1929. He died 11 August 1942 in Paris.[53]
Samvel Tumajan (Tomajanian)
Սամուել Թումաճան (Թոմաճանեան)
Died[24] Hunchak[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915.[26] Samvel Tomajian/Թօմաճեան (!) died according to Alboyajian.[24]
Daniel Varoujan
Դանիել Վարուժան
1884
in Brgnik (in Vilayet of Sivas)
Killed Poet 24 April 1915 Çankırı Was killed together with Ruben Sevak by 12 çetes on 26 August 1915 6 hours after Çankırı near the han of Tüneh in a group of five.[21]
Aram Yerchanik
Արամ Երջանիկ
1865 Died Restaurant owner 24 April 1915 Çankırı Was deported as many intellectuals regularly met at his restaurant in Bahçekapı, died in 1915.[24]
D. Yerganian
Տ. Երկանեան
Lawyer[5] 24 April 1915
Krikor Yesayan
Գրիգոր Եսայեան
1883
from Van[24]
Killed[21] Dashnak[24] French and Math teacher, translator of Levon Shant's Ancient Gods into French[24] 24 April 1915 Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[2] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat.[21]
Yeznik
Եզնիկ
Profession 24 April 1915 Çankırı[24]
Nerses Zakarian
Ներսես Զաքարեան
Killed Hunchak[17] Patriot or educator,[5] member of Armenian National Assembly[17] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Avedis Zarifian
Ավետիս Զարիֆեան
Survivor[14] Pharmacist 24 April 1915 Çankırı Permitted to return to the capital soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Roupen Zartarian
Ռուբէն Զարդարեան
1874
in Kharpert
Killed Writer, poet, newspaper (Azadamard) and textbook editor, considered as a pioneer of Armenian rural literature. Translated Victor Hugo, Maxim Gorki, Anatole France, Oscar Wilde into Armenian.[25] 24 April 1915 Ayaş Removed from the Ayaş prison on 5 May and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Daghavarian, Agnouni, Jangülian, Khajag and Minassian to appear before a court martial there and they were, seemingly, murdered by the [well-known] band of brigands led by Cherkes Ahmet, and lieutenants Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır.[10] The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo.
Zenop[24]
Զենոբ
24 April 1915 Çankırı
Krikor Zohrab
Գրիգոր Զոհրապ
1861 Killed Writer, jurist, deputy in the Ottoman parliament 21 May 1915 or 2 June 1915[46] Dispatched to Diyarbakır to appear before a court martial Ordered to appear before a court martial in Diyarbakır, together with Vartkes Hovhannes Serengülyan, both went to Aleppoby train, escorted by one gendarme, remained in Aleppo for a few weeks, waited the results of infructuous attempts by the Ottoman governor of the city to have them sent back to the capital (some sources mention Cemal Pasha himself intervening for their return, but Talat Pasha insisting on them to sent to the court martial), and then dispatched to Urfa and remained there for some time in the house of a Turkish deputy friend, taken under police escort and led to Diyarbakır by car -allegedly accompanied on a voluntary basis by some notable Urfa Armenians, and with many sources confirming, they were murdered by the [well-known] band of brigands led by Cherkes Ahmet, Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karaköprü or Şeytanderesi in the outskirts of Urfa, some time between 15 July and 20 July 1915. The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo.
Bartogh Zorian (Jirayr)
Բարթող Զօրեան (Ժիրայր)
Killed 24 April 1915 Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]

Notes

Footnotes

References

Reference notes

Further reading

  • Garine Avakian: Եղեռնահուշ մասունք կամ խոստովանողք եւ վկայք խաչի [Relic of the Genocide or to those who suffered in the name of the cross and died for their faith], Yerevan, 2002 ISBN 978-99930-2-436-1 [gives an account of the events that lead to Çankırı (place of deportation in Anatolia) and 100 short biographic descriptions of deportees on the basis of a rosary/worry-beads (Hamrich) in the History Museum of Yerevan with the engraved names of the deportees, that a deportee himself, Varteres Atanasian, created.]
  • Krikor Balakian Հայ Գողգոթան [The Armenian Golgotha], Mechitaristenpresse Vienna 1922 (vol. 1) and Paris 1956 (vol. 2) (a new edition in French: Georges Balakian: Le Golgotha arménien, Le cercle d'écrits caucasiens, La Ferté-Sous-Jouarre 2002 (vol. 1) ISBN 978-2-913564-08-4, 2004 (vol. 2) ISBN 2-913564-13-5)
  • Krikor Beledian: Le retour de la Catastrophe, in: Catherine Coquio (Hg.): L'histoire trouée. Négation et témoignage, éditions l'atalante, Nantes 2003 ISBN 978-2-84172-248-8 [essay about the survivor literature 1918–23]
  • Raymond Kévorkian: Le Génocide des Arméniens, Odile Jacob, Paris 2006 ISBN 978-2-7381-1830-1
  • Teotoros Lapçinciyan (Teotig) Գողգոթա հայ հոգեւորականութեան [The Golgotha of the Armenian clergy], H. Mateossian, Constantinople 1921 [gives an account of over 1.500 deported clergymen all over the Ottoman Empire with selected biographical entries and lists 100 notables of 24 April 1915 by name out of 270 in total and classifies them roughly in 9 professional groups]
  • Teotoros Lapçinciyan (Teotig): Ամէնուն Տարեցոյցը. Ժ-ԺԴ. Տարի. 1916–1920. [Everyman's Almanac. 10.-14. Year. 1916–1920], G. Keshishian press, Constantinople 1920
  • Mikayel Shamtanchian: The Fatal Night. An Eyewitness Account of the Extermination of Armenian Intellectuals in 1915 translated from the Armenian by Ishkhan Jinbashian, H. and K. Manjikian Publications, Studio City (CA) 2007 ISBN 978-0-9791289-9-8
  • Rita Soulahian Kuyumjian Archeology of Madness. Komitas. Portrait of an Armenian Icon. Gomidas Institute Taderon Press Princeton, New Jersey, 2001 ISBN 978-0-9535191-7-0
  • Yves Ternon Enquête sur la négation d'un génocide [Investigation of the Denial of a Genocide], Editions Parentèses, Marseille 1989 ISBN 978-2-86364-052-4 [gives an account of the arrests of 24 April 1915 in the 1st part of his book]
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