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Cronquist system

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Cronquist system

The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants. It was developed by Arthur Cronquist in his texts An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) and The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants (1968; 2nd edition, 1988).

Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes, Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons) and Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Within these classes, related orders are grouped into subclasses.

The scheme is still widely used, in either the original form or in adapted versions, but some botanists are adopting the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III.

The system as laid out in An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) counts 64 orders and 321 families in class Magnoliopsida and 19 orders and 65 families in class Liliopsida:

Class Magnoliopsida

Cronquist system diagram
  1. Subclass Magnoliidae (mostly basal dicots)
  2. Order Magnoliales
  3. Winteraceae
  4. Degeneriaceae
  5. Himantandraceae
  6. Eupomatiaceae
  7. Austrobaileyaceae
  8. Magnoliaceae (magnolia family)
  9. Lactoridaceae
  10. Annonaceae
  11. Myristicaceae
  12. Canellaceae
  13. Order Laurales
  14. Amborellaceae
  15. Trimeniaceae
  16. Monimiaceae
  17. Gomortegaceae
  18. Calycanthaceae
  19. Idiospermaceae
  20. Lauraceae (laurel family)
  21. Hernandiaceae
  22. Order Piperales
  23. Chloranthaceae
  24. Saururaceae
  25. Piperaceae (pepper family)
  26. Order Aristolochiales
  27. Aristolochiaceae
  28. Order Illiciales
  29. Illiciaceae
  30. Schisandraceae
  31. Order Nymphaeales
  32. Nelumbonaceae
  33. Nymphaeaceae
  34. Barclayaceae
  35. Cabombaceae
  36. Ceratophyllaceae
  37. Order Ranunculales
  38. Ranunculaceae
  39. Circaeasteraceae
  40. Berberidaceae
  41. Sargentodoxaceae
  42. Lardizabalaceae
  43. Menispermaceae
  44. Coriariaceae
  45. Sabiaceae
  46. Order Papaverales
  47. Papaveraceae
  48. Fumariaceae
  49. Subclass Hamamelidae [sic: correctly Hamamelididae]
  50. Order Trochodendrales
  51. Tetracentraceae
  52. Trochodendraceae
  53. Order Hamamelidales
  54. Cercidiphyllaceae
  55. Eupteleaceae
  56. Platanaceae
  57. Hamamelidaceae
  58. Myrothamnaceae
  59. Order Daphniphyllales
  60. Daphniphyllaceae
  61. Order Didymelales
  62. Didymelaceae
  63. Order Eucommiales
  64. Eucommiaceae
  65. Order Urticales
  66. Barbeyaceae
  67. Ulmaceae
  68. Cannabaceae
  69. Moraceae
  70. Cecropiaceae
  71. Urticaceae
  72. Order Leitneriales
  73. Leitneriaceae
  74. Order Juglandales
  75. Rhoipteleaceae
  76. Juglandaceae
  77. Order Myricales
  78. Myricaceae
  79. Order Fagales
  80. Balanopaceae
  81. Ticodendraceae
  82. Fagaceae
  83. Nothofagaceae
  84. Betulaceae
  85. Order Casuarinales
  86. Casuarinaceae
  87. Subclass Caryophyllidae
  88. Order Caryophyllales
  89. Phytolaccaceae
  90. Achatocarpaceae
  91. Nyctaginaceae
  92. Aizoaceae
  93. Didiereaceae
  94. Cactaceae (cactus family)
  95. Chenopodiaceae
  96. Amaranthaceae
  97. Portulacaceae
  98. Basellaceae
  99. Molluginaceae
  100. Caryophyllaceae
  101. Order Polygonales
  102. Polygonaceae
  103. Order Plumbaginales
  104. Plumbaginaceae
  105. Subclass Dilleniidae
  106. Order Dilleniales
  107. Dilleniaceae
  108. Paeoniaceae
  109. Order Theales
  110. Ochnaceae
  111. Sphaerosepalaceae
  112. Sarcolaenaceae
  113. Dipterocarpaceae
  114. Caryocaraceae
  115. Theaceae (tea family)
  116. Actinidiaceae
  117. Scytopetalaceae
  118. Pentaphylacaceae
  119. Tetrameristaceae
  120. Pellicieraceae
  121. Oncothecaceae
  122. Marcgraviaceae
  123. Quiinaceae
  124. Elatinaceae
  125. Paracryphiaceae
  126. Medusagynaceae
  127. Clusiaceae
  128. Order Malvales
  129. Elaeocarpaceae
  130. Tiliaceae
  131. Sterculiaceae
  132. Bombacaceae
  133. Malvaceae
  134. Order Lecythidales
  135. Lecythidaceae
  136. Order Nepenthales
  137. Sarraceniaceae
  138. Nepenthaceae
  139. Droseraceae
  140. Order Violales
  141. Flacourtiaceae
  142. Peridiscaceae
  143. Bixaceae
  144. Cistaceae
  145. Huaceae
  146. Lacistemataceae
  147. Scyphostegiaceae
  148. Stachyuraceae
  149. Violaceae (violet family)
  150. Tamaricaceae (tamarind family)
  151. Frankeniaceae
  152. Dioncophyllaceae
  153. Ancistrocladaceae
  154. Turneraceae
  155. Malesherbiaceae
  156. Passifloraceae
  157. Achariaceae
  158. Caricaceae
  159. Fouquieriaceae
  160. Hoplestigmataceae
  161. Cucurbitaceae
  162. Datiscaceae
  163. Begoniaceae
  164. Loasaceae
  165. Order Salicales
  166. Salicaceae
  167. Order Capparales
  168. Tovariaceae
  169. Capparaceae
  170. Brassicaceae
  171. Moringaceae
  172. Resedaceae
  173. Order Batales
  174. Gyrostemonaceae
  175. Bataceae
  176. Order Ericales
  177. Cyrillaceae
  178. Clethraceae
  179. Grubbiaceae
  180. Empetraceae
  181. Epacridaceae
  182. Ericaceae
  183. Pyrolaceae
  184. Monotropaceae
  185. Order Diapensiales
  186. Diapensiaceae
  187. Order Ebenales
  188. Sapotaceae
  189. Ebenaceae
  190. Styracaceae
  191. Lissocarpaceae
  192. Symplocaceae
  193. Order Primulales
  194. Theophrastaceae
  195. Myrsinaceae
  196. Primulaceae
  197. Subclass Rosidae
  198. Order Rosales
  199. Brunelliaceae
  200. Connaraceae
  201. Eucryphiaceae
  202. Cunoniaceae
  203. Davidsoniaceae
  204. Dialypetalanthaceae
  205. Pittosporaceae
  206. Byblidaceae
  207. Hydrangeaceae
  208. Columelliaceae
  209. Grossulariaceae
  210. Greyiaceae
  211. Bruniaceae
  212. Anisophylleaceae
  213. Alseuosmiaceae
  214. Crassulaceae
  215. Cephalotaceae
  216. Saxifragaceae
  217. Rosaceae (rose family)
  218. Neuradaceae
  219. Crossosomataceae
  220. Chrysobalanaceae
  221. Surianaceae
  222. Rhabdodendraceae
  223. Order Fabales
  224. Mimosaceae (mimosa family)
  225. Caesalpiniaceae
  226. Fabaceae
  227. Order Proteales
  228. Elaeagnaceae
  229. Proteaceae
  230. Order Podostemales
  231. Podostemaceae
  232. Order Haloragales
  233. Haloragaceae
  234. Gunneraceae
  235. Order Myrtales
  236. Sonneratiaceae
  237. Lythraceae
  238. Penaeaceae
  239. Crypteroniaceae
  240. Thymelaeaceae
  241. Trapaceae
  242. Myrtaceae
  243. Punicaceae
  244. Onagraceae
  245. Oliniaceae
  246. Melastomataceae
  247. Combretaceae
  248. Alzateaceae
  249. Memecylaceae
  250. Rhyncocalycaceae
  251. Order Rhizophorales
  252. Rhizophoraceae
  253. Order Cornales
  254. Alangiaceae
  255. Nyssaceae
  256. Cornaceae
  257. Garryaceae
  258. Order Santalales
  259. Medusandraceae
  260. Dipentodontaceae
  261. Olacaceae
  262. Opiliaceae
  263. Santalaceae
  264. Misodendraceae
  265. Loranthaceae
  266. Viscaceae
  267. Eremolepidaceae
  268. Balanophoraceae
  269. Order Rafflesiales
  270. Hydnoraceae
  271. Mitrastemonaceae
  272. Rafflesiaceae
  273. Order Celastrales
  274. Geissolomataceae
  275. Celastraceae
  276. Hippocrateaceae
  277. Stackhousiaceae
  278. Salvadoraceae
  279. Aquifoliaceae
  280. Icacinaceae
  281. Aextoxicaceae
  282. Cardiopteridaceae
  283. Corynocarpaceae
  284. Dichapetalaceae
  285. Tepuianthaceae
  286. Order Euphorbiales
  287. Buxaceae
  288. Simmondsiaceae
  289. Pandaceae
  290. Euphorbiaceae
  291. Order Rhamnales
  292. Rhamnaceae
  293. Leeaceae
  294. Vitaceae
  295. Order Linales
  296. Erythroxylaceae
  297. Humiriaceae
  298. Ixonanthaceae
  299. Hugoniaceae
  300. Linaceae
  301. Order Polygalales
  302. Malpighiaceae
  303. Vochysiaceae
  304. Trigoniaceae
  305. Tremandraceae
  306. Polygalaceae
  307. Xanthophyllaceae
  308. Krameriaceae
  309. Order Sapindales
  310. Staphyleaceae
  311. Melianthaceae
  312. Bretschneideraceae
  313. Akaniaceae
  314. Sapindaceae
  315. Hippocastanaceae
  316. Aceraceae
  317. Burseraceae
  318. Anacardiaceae
  319. Julianiaceae
  320. Simaroubaceae
  321. Cneoraceae
  322. Meliaceae
  323. Rutaceae
  324. Zygophyllaceae
  325. Order Geraniales
  326. Oxalidaceae
  327. Geraniaceae
  328. Limnanthaceae
  329. Tropaeolaceae
  330. Balsaminaceae
  331. Order Apiales
  332. Araliaceae
  333. Apiaceae
  334. Subclass Asteridae
  335. Order Gentianales
  336. Loganiaceae
  337. Retziaceae
  338. Gentianaceae
  339. Saccifoliaceae
  340. Apocynaceae
  341. Asclepiadaceae
  342. Order Solanales
  343. Duckeodendraceae
  344. Nolanaceae
  345. Solanaceae
  346. Convolvulaceae
  347. Cuscutaceae
  348. Menyanthaceae
  349. Polemoniaceae
  350. Hydrophyllaceae
  351. Retziaceae
  352. Order Lamiales
  353. Lennoaceae
  354. Boraginaceae
  355. Verbenaceae
  356. Lamiaceae
  357. Order Callitrichales
  358. Hippuridaceae
  359. Callitrichaceae
  360. Hydrostachyaceae
  361. Order Plantaginales
  362. Plantaginaceae
  363. Order Scrophulariales
  364. Buddlejaceae
  365. Oleaceae (olive family)
  366. Scrophulariaceae
  367. Globulariaceae
  368. Myoporaceae
  369. Orobanchaceae
  370. Gesneriaceae
  371. Acanthaceae
  372. Pedaliaceae
  373. Bignoniaceae
  374. Mendonciaceae
  375. Lentibulariaceae
  376. Order Campanulales
  377. Pentaphragmataceae
  378. Sphenocleaceae
  379. Campanulaceae
  380. Stylidiaceae
  381. Donatiaceae
  382. Brunoniaceae
  383. Goodeniaceae
  384. Order Rubiales
  385. Rubiaceae
  386. Theligonaceae
  387. Order Dipsacales
  388. Caprifoliaceae
  389. Adoxaceae
  390. Valerianaceae
  391. Dipsacaceae
  392. Order Calycerales
  393. Calyceraceae
  394. Order Asterales
  395. Asteraceae
  396. Class Liliopsida

    1. Subclass Alismatidae
    2. Order Alismatales
    3. Butomaceae
    4. Limnocharitaceae
    5. Alismataceae
    6. Order Hydrocharitales
    7. Hydrocharitaceae
    8. Order Najadales
    9. Aponogetonaceae
    10. Scheuchzeriaceae
    11. Juncaginaceae
    12. Potamogetonaceae
    13. Ruppiaceae
    14. Najadaceae
    15. Zannichelliaceae
    16. Posidoniaceae
    17. Cymodoceaceae
    18. Zosteraceae
    19. Order Triuridales
    20. Petrosaviaceae
    21. Triuridaceae
      1. Subclass Arecidae
      2. Order Arecales
      3. Arecaceae (palm family)
      4. Order Cyclanthales
      5. Cyclanthaceae
      6. Order Pandanales
      7. Pandanaceae (pandan family)
      8. Order Arales
      9. Acoraceae
      10. Araceae
      11. Lemnaceae
        1. Subclass Commelinidae
        2. Order Commelinales
        3. Rapateaceae
        4. Xyridaceae
        5. Mayacaceae
        6. Commelinaceae
        7. Order Eriocaulales
        8. Eriocaulaceae
        9. Order Restionales
        10. Flagellariaceae
        11. Joinvilleaceae
        12. Restionaceae
        13. Centrolepidaceae
        14. Order Juncales
        15. Juncaceae
        16. Thurniaceae
        17. Order Cyperales
        18. Cyperaceae
        19. Poaceae (Grass family)
        20. Order Hydatellales
        21. Hydatellaceae
        22. Order Typhales
        23. Sparganiaceae
        24. Typhaceae
          1. Subclass Zingiberidae
          2. Order Bromeliales
          3. Bromeliaceae
          4. Order Zingiberales
          5. Strelitziaceae
          6. Heliconiaceae
          7. Musaceae
          8. Lowiaceae
          9. Zingiberaceae (Ginger family)
          10. Costaceae
          11. Cannaceae
          12. Marantaceae
            1. Subclass Liliidae
            2. Order Liliales
            3. Philydraceae
            4. Pontederiaceae
            5. Haemodoraceae
            6. Cyanastraceae
            7. Liliaceae (Lily family)
            8. Iridaceae (Iris family)
            9. Velloziaceae
            10. Aloeaceae (Aloe family)
            11. Agavaceae
            12. Xanthorrhoeaceae
            13. Hanguanaceae
            14. Taccaceae
            15. Stemonaceae
            16. Smilacaceae
            17. Dioscoreaceae
            18. Order Orchidales
            19. Geosiridaceae
            20. Burmanniaceae
            21. Corsiaceae
            22. Orchidaceae (Orchid family)
            23. Bibliography

              • Texas A and M University Bioinformatics Working Group : Cronquist System
              • University of Maryland: Cronquist Family Names and Synonymy
              • Cronquist, A. (1988). The evolution and classification of flowering plants, 2d ed. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY.
                • Classification
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