World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Banded houndshark

Article Id: WHEBN0007221272
Reproduction Date:

Title: Banded houndshark  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Leopard shark, Triakidae, Houndshark, Atlantic weasel shark, Blackbelly lanternshark
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Banded houndshark

Banded houndshark
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Subclass: Elasmobranchii
Superorder: Selachimorpha
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Triakidae
Genus: Triakis
Species: T. scyllium
Binomial name
Triakis scyllium
J. P. Müller & Henle, 1839
Range of the banded houndshark[2]

Hemigaleus pingi Evermann & Shaw, 1927

The banded houndshark (Triakis scyllium) is a species of houndshark, in the family Triakidae, common in the northwestern Pacific Ocean from the southern Russian Far East to Taiwan. Found on or near the bottom, it favors shallow coastal habitats with sandy or vegetated bottoms, and also enters brackish water. This shark reaches 1.5 m (4.9 ft) in length. It has a short, rounded snout and mostly narrow fins; the pectoral fins are broad and triangular, and the trailing margin of the first dorsal fin is almost vertical. It is gray above and lighter below; younger sharks have darker saddles and dots, which fade with age.

Nocturnal and largely solitary, the banded houndshark preys on benthic invertebrates and bony fishes. It is aplacental viviparous, with the developing embryos sustained by yolk. After mating during summer, females bear as many as 42 pups following a gestation period of 9–12 months. The banded houndshark poses no danger to humans and adapts well to captivity. It is caught as bycatch off Japan, Taiwan, and likely elsewhere in its range; it may be eaten but is not as well-regarded as related species. Because fishing does not appear to have diminished this shark's population, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has listed it under Least Concern.


  • Taxonomy 1
  • Distribution and habitat 2
  • Description 3
  • Biology and ecology 4
  • Human interactions 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7


The first scientific description of the banded houndshark was authored by German biologists Johannes Peter Müller and Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle, based on a dried specimen from Japan, in their 1838–41 Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen. They gave it the specific epithet scyllium, derived from the Ancient Greek skylion ("dogfish"), and placed it in the genus Triakis.[3] Within the genus, it is placed in the subgenus Triakis along with the leopard shark (T. (Triakis) semifasciata).[2]

Distribution and habitat

Native to the northwestern Pacific Ocean, the banded houndshark occurs from the southern Russian Far East to Taiwan, including Japan, Korea, and eastern China; records from the Philippines are questionable.[1] This common, benthic shark is found over continental and insular shelves, mostly close to shore but also to a depth of 150 m (490 ft).[4] It frequents sandy flats and beds of seaweed and eelgrass; additionally it is tolerant of brackish water and enters estuaries and bays.[1]


The markings of the banded houndshark become indistinct with age.

The banded houndshark is a moderately slender-bodied species growing up to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) long. The snout is short, broad, and rounded; the widely separated nostrils are each preceded by a lobe of skin that does not reach the mouth. The horizontally oval eyes are placed high on the head; they are equipped with rudimentary nictitating membranes (protective third eyelids) and have prominent ridges underneath. The mouth forms a short, wide arch and bears long furrows at the corners that extend onto both jaws. Each tooth has an upright to oblique knife-like central cusp flanked by strong cusplets. There are five pairs of gill slits.[2]

Most of the fins are fairly narrow; in adults the pectoral fins are broad and roughly triangular. The moderately tall first dorsal fin is placed about halfway between the pectoral and pelvic fins, and its trailing margin is nearly vertical near the apex. The second dorsal fin is about three-quarters as high as the first and larger than the anal fin. The caudal fin has a well-developed lower lobe and a prominent ventral notch near the tip of the upper lobe; in young sharks the lower caudal fin lobe is much less distinct.[2] This species is gray above, with darker saddles and scattered black spots that fade with age; the underside is off-white.[4]

Biology and ecology

Spoon worms are an important food source for small banded houndsharks.

The banded houndshark is nocturnal and generally solitary, though several individuals may rest together, sometimes piled atop one another inside a cave.[4][5] It feeds mainly on crustaceans (including shrimps, crabs, hermit crabs, and mantis shrimps), cephalopods (including octopus), and spoon worms; polychaete worms, tunicates, peanut worms, and small, bottom-living bony fishes (including flatfishes, conger eels, herring, jacks, drums, and grunts) are occasionally consumed. Shrimp and spoon worms are important prey for sharks up to 70 cm (28 in) long; cephalopods predominate in the diets of larger sharks.[6]

Mating occurs during the summer, and involves the male swimming parallel to the female and gripping her pectoral fin with his teeth; thus secured, he then twists the aft portion of his body to insert a single clasper into her cloaca for copulation. The banded houndshark is aplacental viviparous, in which the developing embryos are sustained to birth by yolk. Females bear litters of 9–26 pups after a gestation period of 9–12 months, though litters as large as 42 pups have been recorded.[5][7][8] The newborns measure 18–20 cm (7.1–7.9 in) long. Males mature sexually at 5–6 years old, when they are 93–106 cm (37–42 in) long, and live up to 15 years. Females mature sexually at 6–7 years old, when they are 106–107 cm (42–42 in) long, and live up to 18 years.[1] Known parasites of this species include the tapeworms Callitetrarhynchus gracilis,[9] Onchobothrium triacis, and Phyllobothrium serratum,[10] the leech Stibarobdella macrothela,[11] and the copepods Achtheinus impenderus,[12] Caligus punctatus,[13] Kroyeria triakos,[14] and Pseudopandarus scyllii.[15]

Human interactions

Live banded houndshark on display at a restaurant in China.

Harmless to humans,[16] the banded houndshark is commonly displayed in public aquariums in China and Japan,[1] and has reproduced in captivity.[8] Individuals have survived in captivity for over five years.[5] This species is often caught incidentally off Japan in gillnets and set nets; the meat is sometimes sold, but is considered to be of poorer quality than that of other houndsharks in the region. It is caught in lesser numbers off Taiwan, and is probably also fished off Korea and northern China. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has listed the banded houndshark under Least Concern, as it remains abundant throughout its range. Off Japan, it can be found in rocky areas that provide refuge from fishing pressure.[1]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f Ebert, D.A.; Tanaka, S.; Nakaya, K. (2007). "Triakis scyllium".  
  2. ^ a b c d Compagno, L.J.V. (1984). Sharks of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization. p. 432.  
  3. ^ Müller, J. and F.G.J. Henle (1838–41). Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen. Veit und Comp. pp. 63–64. 
  4. ^ a b c Hennemann, R.M. (2001). Sharks & Rays: Elasmobranch Guide of the World (second ed.). IKAN – Unterwasserarchiv. p. 113.  
  5. ^ a b c Michael, S.W. (1993). Reef Sharks & Rays of the World. Sea Challengers. p. 59.  
  6. ^ Kamura, S.; Hashimoto, H. (2004). "The food habits of four species of triakid sharks, Triakis scyllium, Hemitriakis japanica, Mustelus griseus and Mustelus manazo, in the central Seto Inland Sea, Japan". Fisheries Science 70: 1019–1035.  
  7. ^ Ni, J.; Li, J.; Xu, Y. (1992). "Triakis scyllium"Preliminary observation on the feeding habits and reproduction of . Journal of Oceanography of Huanghai & Bohai Seas 10 (1): 42–46. 
  8. ^ a b Michael, S.W. (2001). Aquarium Sharks & Rays. T.F.H. Publications. p. 229.  
  9. ^ Williams, H.H.; Jones, A. (1994). Parasitic Worms of Fish. CRC Press. p. 390.  
  10. ^  
  11. ^ Yamauchi, T.; Ota, Y.; Nagasawa, K. (August 20, 2008). (Annelida, Hirudinida, Piscicolidae) from Elasmobranchs in Japanese Waters, with New Host Records"Stibarobdella macrothela". Biogeography 10: 53–57. 
  12. ^ Shen, C.J.; Wang, K.N. (1959). "A new parasitic copepod, Achtheinus impenderus (Coligoida, Pandaridae), from a shark taken at Peitaiho, Hopei Province". Acta Zoologica Sinica 10 (1): 27–31. 
  13. ^ Boxshall, G.A.; Defaye, D., ed. (1993). Pathogens of Wild and Farmed Fish: Sea Lice. CRC Press. p. 16.  
  14. ^ Izawa, K. (2008). (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Kroyeriidae) infecting Japanese sharks"Kroeyerina and Kroyeria"Redescription of four species of . Crustaceana 81 (6): 695–724.  
  15. ^  
  16. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2011). "Triakis scyllium in FishBase. May 2011 version.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.