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Chronology of the Bible

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Chronology of the Bible

This article deals with the chronology of the Hebrew Bible (or Christian Old Testament). For material on the Christian New Testament, see Chronology of Jesus, Historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles, and Timeline of Christianity. For a historical look at the Bible see The Bible and history. For the composition of the various books of the Bible, see Dating the Bible.

The chronology of the Bible (the Jewish Tanakh and the Christian Old Testament) is set out in a complex system of genealogies, generations, reign-periods and other historical reference points marking the passage of time between the supposed date of the creation of the world and the re-dedication of the Temple four thousand years later. Attempts to correlate these references with known history have had limited success, and today are largely restricted to the period of the Israelite monarchy.

Background: the Biblical chronology

The Jewish Bible/Christian Old Testament contains a history of the Jewish people (the "Primary History") which runs from the Book of Genesis to 2 Kings, and there is general agreement that it reached its final form around the 6th or 5th century BCE.[1]

The presence of the chronology makes it theoretically possible to construct an accurate chronology of the History, but in practice the many areas of confusion, vagueness, and discrepancy have made this impossible. Adding to the difficulty is the fact that there are three different versions of the chronology to consider. The best-known is the Masoretic text, the text used in Jewish Bibles and Christian bibles in the Western tradition. There is also a Greek text called the Septuagint, used in the Orthodox churches and dating from the last few centuries before Christ, and a second Hebrew text called the Samaritan Pentateuch, used today by a Jewish sect in northern Israel but certainly quite ancient. The Masoretic text is usually given primacy, but the other two often provide valuable alternative readings where difficulties arise.

The chronology was probably given its current form soon after the year 164 BCE, the year of the re-dedication of the Temple in Jerusalem by Judas Maccabee after its desecration by the Greeks, and with the first full year after the re-dedication as its Year 4000 AM.[2] It thus functions as a kind of implied prophecy, based on the Hellenistic "Great Year" of four thousand years, taking as its key events, in reverse order: the decree of Cyrus (the Persian king who ordered the building of the Second Temple); the destruction of the First Temple and beginning of the Babylonian exile; the First Temple's construction under Solomon; the Exodus; God's calling of Abraham; Abraham's birth; and the Creation as the starting point.[3]

Beginning with the re-dedication, the author of the chronology added the number of years between that point (164 BCE) and the decree of Cyrus (538 BCE), which is 374 years. From that point on his numbers are symbolic, made to fit the 4,000 year Great Year. Some are invented – the Exodus, for example, is made to fall in 2666 AM, exactly two thirds of the way through the Great Year, in order to mark it as the pivotal event of the entire period.[3] Others may once have been real history, but have been adjusted - the reigns of the kings of Judah and Israel fit neatly into 480 years, one of the chronology's recurring units.

History of interpretation: chronologies of the Bible

The Jewish calendar's reference point is traditionally considered to be about one year before the creation of the world.

Jewish chronologies

The first notable post-Biblical attempt to turn the Biblical chronology into a chronology of the Bible was the 2nd century BCE Book of Jubilees; beginning with the Creation, it measures time in years, "weeks" of years (groups of seven years), and jubilees (sevens of sevens), so that the interval from Creation to the settlement of Canaan, for example, is exactly fifty jubilees (2450 years).[4] The most significant of such works, at least for Jewish culture, was the Seder Olam Rabbah ("Great Order of the World"), a 2nd century CE Jewish chronology which provides dates for the Biblical history from the Creation to the conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great. Like the Biblical chronology, to which it forms a commentary and explanation, it dates its years Anno Mundo, from the Creation, although it treats the few days prior to the creation of Adam as Year 1, with the result that the subsequent events in Eden occur in Year 2. Like the original Biblical chronology and Jubilees, its numbers are schematic: it allows, for example, 410 years for the duration of the First Temple, 70 years from its destruction to the Second Temple, and 420 years for the duration of the Second Temple, making a total of 900 years for the two temples.[5] This schematic approach to numbers accounts for its most remarkable feature, the fact that it shortens the entire Persian Empire, which lasted for over two centuries, to just 52 years (18 years before the building of the Second Temple and 34 after) in order to mirror the 52 years it gives to the Babylonian exile.[6] Despite its shortcomings it came to be adopted as the traditional Jewish calendar, and, with revisions, is still in use today.

Christian chronography from the New Testament to Bishop Ussher

The early Church Father Eusebius (c.260-340) placed Christ's birth in 5199 AM. His calculation became generally accepted by the Western branch of the church, but as the year 800 CE approached there was increasing fear that the end of the world was nigh (it was widely believed that Christ would return at the end of the sixth millennium). The Venerable Bede made his own calculations and found that there were in fact only 3,592 years between the Creation and the birth of Christ.[7] There was little further interest until Martin Luther (1483-1586) shifted the focus from Christ's birth to the Apostolic Council described in Acts 15, an event he believed marked the moment when the Mosaic Law was abolished and the new age of grace begun: this happened, he found, in the year 4000 AM.[8] Luther's calculation remained widely accepted among European Protestants, but in the English-speaking world Archibishop James Ussher (1581-1656) switched the focus back to the birth of Christ, which, contradicting Luther, he found had occurred in 4000 AM; as Ussher was aware that the traditional date for Christ's birth was incorrect, he thus arrived at a date for the Creation of 4004 BCE. Ussher was not the first to arrive at this results, but his chronology was so detailed that his dates were incorporated into the margins of English Bibles for the next two hundred years.[9]

Chronology of the Hebrew kings

The Biblical books of Samuel and Kings links kings by accession and length of reign ("king X of Judah came to the throne in the nth year of king Y of Israel"), and therefore seems to hold out the prospect of reconstructing a timeline for the monarchy. The task has in fact proven intractably difficult.[10] The problem is that the books contain numerous contradictions: to take just one example, 2 Kings 16:1 has King Ahaz of Judah begin his reign in the seventeenth year of Pekah of Israel, but 2 Kings 17:1 has Ahaz's twelfth year fall in the first year of Hoshea, four years after Pekah, with the result that the twelfth year of Ahaz comes four years after his first year.[11] "The data concerning the synchronisms appeared in hopeless contradiction with the data as to the lengths of reigns."[12] Possibly the most widely followed attempt to reconcile the contradictions has been that proposed by Edwin Thiele in his The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (three editions between 1951 and 1983), but his work has been widely criticised for, among other things, introducing "innumerable" co-regencies, constructing a "complex system of calendars", and using "unique" patterns of calculation; as a result, even as early as 1979, his following was largely among conservative scholars "committed ... to a doctrine of scripture's absolute harmony." (The criticisms are from Brevard S. Childs' Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture).[13] The weaknesses in Thiele's work have led subsequent scholars to continue to propose chronologies, but, in the words of a recent commentary on Kings, there is "little consensus on acceptable methods of dealing with conflicting data."[14]

Tables

Creation to Abraham

Biblical dating commences with Creation or the creation of Adam, depending on the source. In the Seder Olam Rabbah, written during ca. 160 CE and meant to be a history of the world, Adam's creation is considered year 0, and his death 930 years later is considered year 930. The Jewish calendar currently in use terms the 5 days prior to Adam's creation year 1, and has Adam created on the first day of year 2.

The period to the Flood is derived using the genealogical table of the ten patriarchs listed in Genesis 5, and 7:6, termed the generations of Adam. According to the Masoretic Text, this period consists of 1656 years, and this dating is also followed by Western Christian Bibles derived from the Latin Vulgate. According to the Samaritan texts the period is 1307 years, and according to the Septuagint (Codex Alexandrinus, Elizabeth Bible) it is 2262 years.[15]

Masoretic
Date (AM)
Masoretic
Date (BCE)
Event Reference
1 AM 4124 BCE According to the Genesis creation narrative heaven and the earth were created, including Adam and Eve. Genesis 1:1
130 AM 3995 BCE Seth born, son of Adam with Eve Genesis 5:3
235 AM 3890 BCE Enosh born, son of Seth Genesis 5:6
325 AM 3800 BCE Kenan born, son of Enosh Genesis 5:9
395 AM 3730 BCE Mahalalel born, son of Kenan Genesis 5:12
460 AM 3665 BCE Jared born, son of Mahalalel Genesis 5:15
622 AM 3503 BCE Enoch born, son of Jared Genesis 5:18
687 AM 3438 BCE Methuselah born, son of Enoch Genesis 5:21
874 AM 3251 BCE Lamech born, son of Methusaleh Genesis 5:25
930 AM 3195 BCE Adam died at 930 Genesis 5:5
987 AM 3138 BCE Enoch "walks with God" Genesis 5:23-24
1042 AM 3083 BCE Seth died at 912 Genesis 5:8
1056 AM 3069 BCE Noah born, son of Lamech Genesis 5:28-29
1140 AM 2985 BCE Enosh died at 905 Genesis 5:11
1235 AM 2890 BCE Kenan died at 910 Genesis 5:14
1290 AM 2835 BCE Mahalalel died at 895 Genesis 5:17
1422 AM 2703 BCE Jared died at 962 Genesis 5:20
1556 AM 2569 BCE Noah begets Shem, Ham and Japheth. Noah is 500, nearly 501. Genesis 5:32
Genesis 7:6
1651 AM 2474 BCE Lamech died at 777 Genesis 8:4
1656 AM 2469 BCE Methuselah died at 969 Genesis 5:31
1656 AM 2469 BCE On the seventeenth (Septuagint: 27th) day of the second month, the fountains of the great deep were broken up and the windows of heaven were opened. Genesis 7:4-11
1656 AM 2469 BCE On the seventeenth day of the seventh month, Noah's Ark rested in "mountains of Ararat" Genesis 7:27
1657 AM 2468 BCE On the twenty-seventh day of the second month, Noah and his family left the ark Genesis 8:13-14
1658 AM 2467 BCE Arphaxad born, son of Shem
Shem is 100 years old, nearly 101.
Genesis 11:10

The period from the creation to Abraham is measured by the genealogies at Genesis 5 and 11, elapsed time being calculated by the addition of the years of the patriarchs at the birth of their offspring. The genealogies exist in three main manuscript traditions, the Masoretic (in Hebrew), the Septuagint (in Greek), and the Samaritan Torah (Hebrew). The three do not agree with each other, here or elsewhere. (The Septuagint is represented in this table by two manuscripts, Alexandrinus and Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209; dates are Anno Mundi, or AM, meaning year of the world):[16]

Period Masoretic
Alexandrinus
Vaticanus
Samaritan
Note
Year of the Flood 1656 AM 2262 AM 2242 AM 1307 AM The Masoretic, Alexandrinus and Samaritan chronologies records the deaths of all the pre-Flood patriarchs except Noah either in or prior to the Flood, but Vaticanus has Methuselah outlive the Flood by 14 years.
Flood to Abraham 352 years 1072 years 1172 years 942 years
Year of Abraham's birth 1948 AM 3334 AM 3414 AM 2249 AM The two sets of patriarchs before and after the Flood are exactly symmetrical: there are ten in each group, and the final members of each, Noah and Terah, each have three sons who will begin the next section of the chronology.

The following is a list of biblical patriarchs from Shem to Abraham, given with their Masoretic date.

Masoretic date
(AM)
Masoretic date
(BCE)
Event Bible verse
1658 AM 2467 BCE Arphaxad born, son of Shem Genesis 11:10
1693 AM 2432 BCE Shelah born, son of Arphaxad Genesis 11:12
1723 AM 2402 BCE Eber born, son of Shelah Genesis 11:14
1757 AM 2368 BCE Peleg born, son of Eber Genesis 11:16
1787 AM 2338 BCE Reu born, son of Peleg Genesis 11:18
1819 AM 2306 BCE Serug born, son of Reu Genesis 11:20
1849 AM 2276 BCE Nahor born, son of Serug Genesis 11:22
1878 AM 2247 BCE Terah born, son of Nahor Genesis 11:24
1996 AM 2129 BCE Peleg died Genesis 11:19
1997 AM 2128 BCE Nahor died Genesis 11:25
2006 AM 2119 BCE Noah died Genesis 9:28
1948 AM 2117 BCE Abram born, son of Terah Genesis 11:26
Genesis 12:4
Acts 7:2-4

The Flood

The Flood is set into the longer Creation-to-Abraham chronology as a cameo, but one with a very involved chronology of its own. Its significance lies in the way it underlines the message of the Creation by repeating it, first destroyed the world in the same order in which God created it, and then rebuilding it.

Abraham to Israel's captivity in Egypt

Masoretic date
(AM)
Masoretic date
(BCE)
Event Bible verse
1948 AM 2117 BCE Abram born, son of Terah Genesis 11:26
Genesis 12:4
Acts 7:4
1958 AM 2107 BCE Sarai born, wife of Abram Genesis 17:17
2026 AM 2099 BCE Reu died Genesis 11:21
2047 AM 2018 BCE Covenant of Circumcision. Abram and Sarai renamed Abraham and Sarah by the LORD.
Abraham was circumcised.
Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed
Genesis 17:10
2049 AM 2076 BCE Serug died Genesis 11:23
2083 AM 2042 BCE Terah died Genesis 11:32
2034 AM 2031 BCE Ishmael born, son of Abram with Sarai's handmaiden Hagar Genesis 16:16
2036 AM 2029 BCE Arpachshad died Genesis 11:13
2048 AM 2017 BCE Isaac born, son of Abraham with Sarah Genesis 21:5
2126 AM 1999 BCE Shelah died Genesis 11:15
2141 AM 1980 BCE Sarah died Genesis 23:1
2158 AM 1967 BCE Shem died Genesis 11:11
2168 AM 1957 BCE Esau and Jacob born, sons of Isaac with Rebekah Genesis 25:26
2123 AM 1942 BCE Abraham died Genesis 25:7
2187 AM 1938 BCE Eber died Genesis 11:17
2231 AM 1894 BCE Ishmael died Genesis 25:17
2259 AM 1866 BCE Joseph born, son of Jacob with Rachel Genesis 30:25
Genesis 41:46
2276 AM 1849 BCE Joseph was sold by his brothers Genesis 37:2
2287 AM 1838 BCE Joseph interpreted the dreams of the butler and the baker while in prison Genesis 41:1
2288 AM 1837 BCE Isaac died Genesis 35:28
2289 AM 1836 BCE Joseph was elevated to Pharaoh's second Genesis 41:46
2298 AM 1827 BCE Jacob moved to Egypt at the age of 130
After 7 years of plenty and 2 years of famine
When Joseph was 39
Genesis 47:9, 45:11, 41:46
2315 AM 1810 BCE Jacob died Genesis 47:28
2369 AM 1756 BCE Joseph died Genesis 50:26

The Exodus to the foundation of the Temple

Masoretic date
(AM)
Masoretic date
(BCE)
Event Bible verse
2433 AM 1692 BCE Moses born, son of Amram with Jochebed Exodus 7:7
Exodus 12:40,41
Exodus 2:23
Exodus 2:11-15
Acts 7:23-30
2513 AM 1612 BCE The Israelites left in a mass exodus from Egypt. Genesis 15:13,
see also 1 Kings 6:1
2553 AM 1572 BCE Aaron and Moses died Deuteronomy 34:7
2553 AM 1572 BCE The Israelites entered Canaan Joshua 4:19
2553–3063 AM 1572–1062 BCE Period of Joshua, Judges and Saul, first King of Israel 1 Kings 6:1
2 Samuel 5:4
3033 AM 1092 BCE Jesse begat David 2 Samuel 5:4
3063–3103 AM 1062–1022 BCE David reigned as king of Israel 1 Kings 2:11 - reigns for 40 years
3070 AM 1055 BCE David moved his capitol from Hebron to Jerusalem 1 Kings 2:11
3103–3143 AM 1022–982 BCE Solomon son of David reigned as king of Israel 1 Kings 11:42
3106 AM 1019 BCE Foundation of Temple laid in the 4th year of Solomon's reign
480th year after the Exodus.
1 Kings 6:1

The sum of the reigns of the kings of Judah is 430 years, the same as the Septuagint's version of the period between the promise of the Land of Canaan given to Abraham and the covenant at Sinai.[17]

For this period, most historians follow either of the older chronologies established by William F. Albright or Edwin R. Thiele, or the newer chronologies of Gershon Galil and Kenneth Kitchen. See Kings of Israel and Kings of Judah for the differences between these chronologies. These scholarly chronologies may differ for up to about forty years from the traditional Masoretic dates in the early period, while all authorities agree that the last king of Judah, Zedekiah, ruled from 597 to 587 or 586 BCE.

First Temple: Kingdom of Israel

Masoretic date
(AM)
Masoretic date
(BCE)
Event Bible verse
3143 AM 982 BCE The United Monarchy split into two rival kingdoms: Israel in the north and Judah in the south. 1 Kings 12
3143–3164 AM 982–961 BCE Jeroboam I son of Nebat reigned as king of Israel 1 Kings 12:20
1 Kings 14:20
3163–3164 AM 962–961 BCE Nadab son of Jeroboam I co-reigned as king of Israel with Jeroboam. 1 Kings 15
2 Chronicles 13:20
3164–3165 AM 961–960 BCE Nadab son of Jeroboam I reigned as king of Israel. 1 Kings 15
2 Chronicles 13:20
3165–3188 AM 960–937 BCE Baasha reigned as king of Israel 1 Kings 15:28,33
3188–3189 AM 937-936 BCE Elah son of Baasha reigned as king of Israel 1 Kings 16
3189 AM 936 BCE Zimri reigned as king of Israel for 7 days in Tirzah having slew Elah. 1 Kings 16
3189-3193 AM 936–932 BCE The people of Israel were divided after the death of Zimri, as half wanted Tibni for King, with the other half wanting Omri for King. Rival kingships of Tibni and Omri until Tibni dies. 1 Kings 16
3193–3200 AM 932–925 BCE Omri reigns as sole king of Israel, after the death of Tibni. 1 Kings 16
3200–3221 AM 925–904 BCE Ahab son of Omri reigned as king of Israel 1 Kings 16
3220–3221 AM 905–904 BCE Ahab son of Omri and Ahaziah son of Ahab co-reigned as kings of Israel 1 Kings 16
3221-3221 AM 904-903 BCE Ahaziah son of Ahab reigned as king of Israel, following the death of King Ahab in battle at Ramoth Gilead. 1 Kings 22
3221–3233 AM 903–892 BCE Joram (Jehoram) son of Ahab reigned as king of Israel, following death of King Ahab in battle at Ramoth Gilead and King Ahaziah who fell through a lattice. 2 Kings 1
3233–3261 AM 892-864 BCE Jehu son of Nimshi slew the two kings, Joram King of Israel and Ahaziah King of Judah. Jehu becomes the king of Israel 2 Kings 9:21
3261–3278 AM 864–847 BCE Jehoahaz son of Jehu reigned as king of Israel
3275–3278 AM 850–847 BCE Jehoahaz son of Jehu and Jehoash (Joash) son of Jehoahaz co-reign as kings of Israel
3278–3293 AM 847–832 BCE Jehoash (Joash) son of Jehoahaz reigned as king of Israel
3293–3334 AM 832–791 BCE Jeroboam II son of Jehoash reigned as king of Israel 2 Kings 14:16,23
3334–3356 AM 791-769 BCE Interregnum
3356–3357 AM 769-768 BCE Zechariah son of Jeroboam II reigned as king of Israel six months
3357–3357 AM 768-768 BCE Shallum reigned as king of Israel
3358–3568 AM 767–757 BCE Menahem son of Gadi reigned as king of Israel
3368–3370 AM 757–755 BCE Pekahiah son of Menahem reigned as king of Israel
3370–3390 AM 755–735 BCE Pekah son of Remaliah reigned as king of Israel
3390–3398 AM 735-727 BCE Interregnum
3398–3406 AM 727–719 BCE Hoshea son of Elah reigned as king of Israel
3403 AM 722 BCE Northern kingdom of Israel fell to Assyria, forced to pay tribute.
3406 AM 719 BCE Northern kingdom of Israel fell to Assyria, deportation of inhabitants to Assyria. 2 Kings 17:1

First Temple: Kingdom of Judah

Masoretic date
(AM)
Masoretic date
(BCE)
Event Bible verse
3143 AM 982 BCE The United Monarchy split into two rival kingdoms: Israel in the north and Judah in the south. 1 Kings 12
3143–3160 AM 982–965 BCE Rehoboam son of Solomon reigned as king of Judah 1 Kings 12
3160–3163 AM 965-962 BCE Abijam son of Rehoboam reigned as king of Judah 1 Kings 15
3163–3204 AM 963–922 BCE Asa son of Abijam reigned as king of Judah 1 Kings 15
3204–3229 AM 922–896 BCE Jehoshaphat son of Asa reigned as king of Judah, from 35 years old until his death at 60 years old. 1 Kings 22
3224–3228 AM 900-896 BCE Jehoshaphat son of Asa and Jehoram (Joram) son of Jehoshaphat co-reigned as kings of Judah
3229–3232 AM 896-893 BCE Jehoram (Joram) son of Jehoshaphat reigned as king of Judah,
3231-3232 AM 894-893 BCE Jehoram (Joram) son of Jehoshaphat and Ahaziah son of Jehoram co-reigned as kings of Judah
3232-3233 AM 893-892 BCE Ahaziah son of Jehoram reigned as king of Judah
3233 AM 892 BCE Jehu son of Nimshi slew the two kings, Joram King of Israel and Ahaziah King of Judah. Jehu becomes the king of Israel 2 Kings 9:21
3233–3239 AM 892–886 BCE Following the death of her son Ahaziah at the hand of Jehu, Athaliah wife of Jehoram usurped the throne of Judah and ruled six years. 2 Kings 11
3239–3279 AM 886–846 BCE Joash (Jehoash) son of Ahaziah reigned as king of Judah 40 years following the overthrow of Athaliah. 2 Kings 12:1
3279–3308 AM 846–817 BCE Amaziah son of Joash reigned as king of Judah 29 years 2 Kings 12:21
2 Kings 14:1-2
2 Kings 14:17-22
3308–3319 AM 817–806 BCE Interregnum
3319–3371 AM 806–754 BCE Uzziah (Azariah) son of Amaziah reigned as king of Judah 52 years 2 Kings 14:21
2 Kings 15:1-2
3371–3387 754–738 BCE Jotham son of Uzziah reigned as king of Judah 16 years, following four years serving as judge during the leprosy of King Uzziah 2 Kings 15:32
3387–3403 AM 738–722 BCE Ahaz son of Jotham reigned as king of Judah 16 years 2 Kings 15:38
3401–3403 AM 724–722 BCE Ahaz son of Jotham and Hezekiah son of Ahaz co-reigned as kings of Judah
3403–3430 AM 724–697 BCE Hezekiah son of Ahaz reigned as king of Judah 2 Kings 16:20
3406 AM 719 BCE Northern kingdom of Israel fell to Assyria during the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah
3430–3485 AM 695–640 BCE Manasseh son of Hezekiah reigned as king of Judah 55 years 2 Kings 20:21
3485–3487 AM 640–638 BCE Amon son of Manasseh reigned as king of Judah 2 years 2 Kings 21:18
3487–3517 AM 638–608 BCE Josiah son of Amon reigned as king of Judah
3517 AM 608 BCE Jehoahaz son of Josiah reigned as king of Judah 3 months
3518–3528 AM 607–597 BCE Jehoiakim son of Josiah reigned as king of Judah 10 years
3528 AM 597 BCE Jehoiachin (Jeconiah, Coniah) son of Jehoiakim reigned as king of Judah 3 months
3529–3539 AM 596–586 BCE Zedekiah (Mattaniah) son of Josiah reigned as king of Judah 10 years. In his eleventh year Jerusalem falls to the Babylonians. 2 Kings 25:1-21
3538 AM 587 BCE Kingdom of Judah fell to Babylon. The destruction of the First Temple of Jerusalem. The start of the Babylonian Exile.
3586 AM 539 BCE The Babylonian Empire falls to the Persians, led by King Cyrus. Ezra 1
3587 AM 538 BCE End of the Babylonian Exile, as King Cyrus the Great of Persia frees the Jews from exile, in the first year of his reign over Babylon. Ezra 1

Destruction of the First Temple to foundation of the Second

See also

References

  1. ^ Tatum, p. 52.
  2. ^ Hughes 1990, p. 234.
  3. ^ a b Thompson 2008, p. 73-74.
  4. ^ Hughes 1990, p. 245.
  5. ^ Hughes 1990, p. 253.
  6. ^ Hughes 1990, p. 257.
  7. ^ Hughes 1990, p. 259-260.
  8. ^ Hughes 1990, p. 260-261.
  9. ^ Hughes 1990, p. 261-262.
  10. ^ Tetley 2005, p. 1.
  11. ^ http://www.biblicalstudies.org.uk/pdf/bets/vol09/9-2_stigers.pdf
  12. ^ Thiele 1983, p. 15.
  13. ^ Tetley 2005, p. 4 and fn.6.
  14. ^ Konkel 2010, p. 673.
  15. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Biblical Chronology (WikiSource)
  16. ^ G.F. Hasel, "Genesis 5 and 11: Chronogenealogies in the Biblical History of Beginnings"
  17. ^ Wayne Sibley Towner, "Genesis", (Westminster John Knox, 2001) p.75

Sources

  • Barr, James (1987). Biblical Chronology: Legend or Science?. Ethel M. Wood lecture. 
  • Christensen, Duane L. (1990). "Chronology". In Mills,, Watson E.; Bullard, Roger Aubrey. Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. 
  • Gershom, Galil (1996). The chronology of the kings of Israel and Judah. BRILL. 
  • Guillaume, Philippe (2007). "Tracing the Origin of the Sabbatical Calendar in the Priestly Narrative". In Zvi, Ehud Ben. Perspectives on Hebrew Scriptures (II, Volume 5). Gorgias Press. 
  • Hughes, Jeremy (1990). Secrets of the Times: Myth and History in Biblical Chronology. A&C Black. 
  • Konkel, August H. (2010). 1 and 2 Kings. Zondervan. 
  • Larsson, Gerhard (1973). The Secret System. BRILL. 
  • Tetley, Christine (2005). The Reconstructed Chronology of the Divided Kingdom. Eisenbraun. 
  • Tatum, Lynn (2011). "Archaeology and the Bible". In Fee, Gordon D.; Hubbard, Robert L., Jr. The Eerdmans Companion to the Bible. Eerdmans. 
  • Thiele, Edwin R. (1983). The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings. Zondervan. 
  • Thompson, Thomas L. (2002). The historicity of the Patriarchal narratives. Trinity Press. 
  • Thompson, Thomas L. (2008). The Mythic Past: Biblical Archaeology and the Myth of Israel. Basic Books. 
  • Towner, Wayne Sibley (2001). Genesis. Westminster John Knox Press. 



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