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Deskilling

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Deskilling

Deskilling is the process by which skilled labor within an industry or economy is eliminated by the introduction of technologies operated by semiskilled or unskilled workers. This results in cost savings due to lower investment in human capital, and reduces barriers to entry, weakening the bargaining power of the human capital.[1]

It is criticized[2] for decreasing quality, demeaning labor (rendering work mechanical, rather than thoughtful and making workers automatons rather than artisans), and undermining community.

Contents

  • Examples 1
  • Impact 2
  • Related 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6

Examples

Examples of deprofessionalization can be found across many professions, and include:

  • assembly line workers replacing artisans and craftsmen[1]
  • CNC machine tools replacing machinists
  • super-automatic espresso machines replacing skilled baristas
  • doctors; the M.D. is being replaced by "Health Care Providers"
  • nurses
  • pharmacists
  • social workers
  • librarians
  • teachers

Impact

Work is fragmented, and individuals the integrated skills and comprehensive knowledge of the crafts persons.[3]

In an application to the arts, Benjamin Buchloh defines deskilling as "a concept of considerable importance in describing numerous artistic endeavors throughout the twentieth century with relative precision. All of these are linked in their persistent effort to eliminate artisanal competence and other forms of manual virtuosity from the horizon of both artist competence and aesthetic valuation."1

1 Buchloh, Benjamin H. D. Gabriel Orozco: Sculpture as Recollection.

Related

Related to the topic of deskilling is deprofessionalization and labor-saving devices eg kitchen utensils. See also the Luddite fallacy.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Braverman, Harry (1974) Labor and monopoly capital. New York: Monthly Review
  2. ^ Lerner, Sally (1994) "The future of work in North America: Good jobs, bad jobs, beyond jobs". Futures, 26(2):185-196. DOI 10.1016/0016-3287(94)90108-2. [1]
  3. ^ "Online Dictionary of the Social Sciences". Retrieved 2007-04-08. 

Further reading

  • Wood, Stephen (December 1981). Degradation of Work Skill, Deskilling and the Braverman Debate. HarperCollins.  
  • Foster, Hal (March 2005). Art Since 1900 Modernism, Antimodernism, Postmodernism. Thames & Hudson.  
  • Beatrice Edwards. "Deskilling AND Downsizing: Some Thoughts About The Future Of Technical Education". Retrieved 2007-04-08. 
  • Sociology Department, Langara College
  • Sociology Department, McMaster University
  • Technology, Capitalism and Anarchism
  • Kashefi, Mahmoud (1989). Deskilling Or Upgrading The Transformation of Skills Required for Jobs in the United States Economy Since World War II. Indiana University. 


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