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Freedom of religion in Malaysia

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Freedom of religion in Malaysia

Life in Malaysia

Freedom of religion is enshrined in the Malaysian Constitution. First, Article 11 provides that every person has the right to profess and to practice his or her religion and (subject to applicable laws restricting the propagation of other religions to Muslims) to propagate it. Second, the Constitution also provides that Islam is the religion of the country but other religions may be practised in peace and harmony (Article 3).

The status of freedom of religion in Malaysia is a controversial issue. Questions including whether Malaysia is an Islamic state or secular state remains unresolved. In recent times, there has been a number of contentious issues and incidents which has tested the relationship between the different religious groups in Malaysia.

Religious demography

Malaysia has a population of just over 27 million. As of the 2010 Population and Housing Census, 61.3 percent of the population practices Islam; 19.8 percent Buddhism; 9.2 percent Christianity; 6.3 percent Hinduism; and 1.3 percent traditional Chinese religions. The remainder is accounted for by other faiths, including Animism, Folk religion, Sikhism and other belief systems.[1] However, these figures may be misleading as professing the religion of Islam is a requirement for being a Malay in the sense of the Malaysian Constitution.[2] Moreover, Muslims who wish to leave Islam face strong disincentives.

Scope of Islamic law in Malaysia

The nation maintains two parallel justice systems in the country (see: Courts of Malaysia). One is the secular justice system based upon laws gazetted by Parliament. The other is sharia (syariah, Islamic law). Ostensibly Syariah Courts only have jurisdiction over persons who declare themselves to be Muslims. Consequently, this results in non-Muslims not having legal standing in Syariah Courts.

Where decisions of the syariah court affect a non-Muslim, he or she can seek recourse in the secular courts which, in theory, overrule the syariah courts as the Syariah courts are limited in their jurisdiction by Article 121 of the Federal constitution. In 2006 a judge ruled that Article 121 limited the federal courts from ruling on matters ruled on by the Syariah court when it touches Islamic matters. This was seen as a misinterpretation of the article by some, and the case is under appeal in the court of appeals.

The rules of sharia are set by the various sultans of the states. Historically a sultan had absolute authority over the state. Prior to independence, Tunku Abdul Rahman managed to convince the sultans to cede some states' powers to the federal government. One of the terms of this agreement is that the sultans still are the ultimate authority of Islamic law in their respective states. The same arrangement was long held even during British colonial rule. In Selangor, the Selangor Non-Islamic Religions (Control of Propagation Among Muslims) Enactment 1988 was signed by the Sultan of Selangor into law forbidding non-Muslims from using the word "Allah"[3][4]

Constitutionally (in Article 160 of the Constitution of Malaysia), one of the four tests for entitlement to the privileges accorded to a Malaysian Malay is that one must be a Muslim. The rationale for this is that Islam is considered intrinsic to Malay ethnic identity, which culturally and historically is ruled by a Sultan who is a Muslim. Another test is that one must follow the Malay culture. Controversially, court rulings have assumed that all ethnic Malays must automatically satisfy this constitutional definition of a Malaysian Malay, and have therefore concluded that they must satisfy all of its requirements, so they have to be Muslim.

On 29 September 2001, the then Prime Minister, Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad declared that the country was an Islamic state (negara Islam). The opposition leader at the time, Lim Kit Siang, is now actively seeking support to declare Mahathir's move as unconstitutional by repeatedly clarifying that Malaysia is a secular state with Islam as its official religion as enshrined in the Constitution. However, the coalition government headed by Mahathir at the time held more than two-thirds of the seats in parliament. A two-thirds majority vote in Parliament is required for constitutional amendments in Malaysia.

Status of religious freedom

Government in general supports Islamic religious establishment and it is the official policy to "infuse Islamic values" into the administration of the country.

However, Sunday which is the Christian traditional holiday is the official weekend holiday in the Federal Territories and ten out of thirteen states, unlike practices in Middle Eastern Muslim countries. The exception are the states of Johor, Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu, where the weekend falls on Friday and Saturday. Most Muslims in Malaysia accept this, although some have expressed disquiet since the most holy period in a Muslim's week is between Thursday evening and Friday afternoon, when the congregational Jumaat prayer is held. The practice of having Sunday as the weekend holiday is a departure from traditional Islamic practices, dating to British colonial days when the British started bringing in non-Muslim immigrants into the country.

In May 2001, the government decided not to approve the homeschooling, although primary school is compulsory. However, private schools and colleges do have some legal requirements.

Several religious holidays are recognised as official holidays, including Hari Raya Puasa (Muslim), Hari Raya Haji (Muslim), the Prophet's birthday (Muslim), Wesak Day (Buddhist), Deepavali (Hindu), Thaipusam (Hindu), Christmas (Christian), and, in Sabah and Sarawak, Good Friday (Christian).

Inter-faith efforts in Malaysia

In April 2002, the Human Rights Commission (Suhakam) initiated an interfaith dialogue aimed at promoting better understanding and respect among the country's different religious groups. Participants included representatives from the Malaysian Islamic Development Department, the Malaysian Ulama Association, and the Malaysian Consultative Council of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism and Sikhism (MCCBCHS).

In early 2005, much debate was stirred up by a proposed Inter-Faith Commission put forward by various individuals, some of which included academics and lawyers from the Bar Council.

The steering committee behind the proposal for a draft bill for the commission organised a national conference that saw about 200+ people from all religious backgrounds attending it. There they hashed out the framework for a commission that could advise the relevant parties on the many interfaith issues that arise in pluralistic Malaysia such as conversion from Islam to another faith, which is deemed as apostasy in Malaysia.

PAS, member of parliament Dzulkefly Ahmad, stated that he is against religious pluralism saying that it has "relativised" truth claims, by implying that Islam is the same as other religions.[5] Dr. Ahmad went on to make a distinction between promoting relativism of religions and co-operation with people in a "multi-racial, multi-religious, multi-cultural, and multi-lingual" society, and that the latter was necessary to build a strong country.[6]

After much coverage in the local newspapers, the draft bill was put on hold by Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, due to the controversy surrounding it.

Conversion to Islam

Marriage and divorce

A non-Muslim person who wishes to marry a Muslim person must convert to Islam before the marriage can be recognised as legally valid.[7][8] A marriage between two non-Muslims (civil law marriages), however, will not become void after one spouse subsequently converts to Islam.

In 2006, T. Saravanan, a Muslim convert, sought to dissolve his marriage with his non-Muslim wife via the Syariah Court. His wife, R. Subashini, applied to Kuala Lumpur High Court for an injunction against her husband seeking divorce in the Syariah Court. The High Court dismissed her application. This was affirmed in the Court of Appeal, where the court also ordered Subashini to take her case to the Syariah Court. As of September 2007, their case is pending in the Federal Court after an appeal by Subashini.[9] Subashini is also seeking to stop or declare void the conversion of their children.[10] As of 27 December 2007, R. Subashini failed in an attempt to stop her husband from divorcing her in an Islamic court. She also failed to persuade the federal court her husband should be banned from converting their four-year-old son to Islam. The appeal was rejected on a technicality but court added that she would be able to try again in a few months.[11]

Voluntary conversion of minors

Conversion to other faiths is allowed in Malaysia once one has reached an age of majority. A minor may not convert to another faith without explicit permission of his or her guardian as described in the Guardianship of Infants Act (1961) and the Federal Constitution (Articles 11 (1) and 12 (3) and (4)).

This case was tested by Teoh Eng Huat vs Kadhi mot of Pasir Mas Kelantan in 1986.[12] Teoh Eng Huat's daughter was a ward of the state. She married a Muslim. Hence then a minor, converted to Islam. The high court ruled that the father's right to decide the religion and upbringing of the infant is allowed "subject to the condition that it does not conflict with the principles of the infant's choice of religion guaranteed to her under the Federal Constitution". Through the proceedings, Susie Teoh never appeared in court to testify.

The decision was over-ruled on appeal to the Supreme Court, who held "in all the circumstances and in the wider interests of the nation no infant shall have the automatic right to receive instruction relating to any other religion other than (her) own without the permission of the parent or guardian".

The Supreme Court further held that this was "only of academic interest" as Susie Teoh was no longer a minor at the time of hearing.

In response several states (Islamic laws are passed by individual states) passed laws providing for conversion by 15 (defined as "baligh" in Islam or the age of puberty). Federal law still provides for the age of majority as 18.

Automatic conversion of minors following parental conversion

The state of Selangor passed a legal amendment in 1989 that if an adult converts to Islam, any infant children become converted at the same moment. This amendment was quietly removed by its non-inclusion in future amendments of the state bill.

Conversion of minor by one parent

In the case of Chang Ah Mee v Jbt. Hal Ehwal Agama Islam (2003) heard in the Sabah High Court,[12] the father converted to Islam and converted the child to Islam without consent or knowledge of the mother, Chang Ah Mee, on 28 July 1998. The mother gained custody of the child on 13 November 1998 and subsequently sued to declare the conversion void.

The court determined that as a state court, it had jurisdiction over all state matters even those concerning Islam. Further, based upon the Federal Constitution (article 12), The Guardianship of Infants Ordinance (Sabah) 1999, The Law Reform (Marriage and Divorce) Act, 1976 and The Administration of Islamic Law Enactment 1992 (Sabah) determined the conversion of a two-year old child to be void.

In 2003, this issue became prominent again in the case of Shamala Sathiyaseelan v Dr. Jeyaganesh C. Mogarajah.[12] In the first hearing before the High Court, Shamala Sathiyaseelan sought (1) to bring committal proceedings against the father of the infants for breach of the interim custody order of the High Court of 17 April 2003, and (2) to declare that she was not bound by any decisions, order or proceedings of the syariah court.

Earlier the High Court had granted custody to Shamala Sathiyaseelan with access for the father. He failed to return the children to her on 25 May 2003. Shamala and Jeyaganesh were married under Hindu rites registered under the jurisdiction of the Law Reform Act. The husband converted to Islam on 19 November 2002. On 25 November 2002 he converted the children without the mother's knowledge or consent. They were still not divorced at the time.

Without knowledge of Shamala he then obtained a custody order in the syariah court on 30 January 2003. The High Court ruled that the custody order issued by the syariah court "did not change the interim civil court order". They ruled that the syariah court order "is not binding on the plaintiff wife who is non-Muslim". The interim custody order of the High Court and proceedings were binding on the now Muslim husband as matters arising out of the Hindu marriage registered under the Law Reform Act. As his Hindu wife did not file for divorce, she remains "his unconverted wife" under this law.

On 13 April 2004 Shamala once again went to the high court. This time to seek an order that the conversion of the infants was void. As in Chang Ah Mee, she cited the Federal Constitution (Article 12), the Guardianship of Infants Act 1961 and the Administration of Islamic Law (Federal Territories) Act, 1993.

The Guardianship of Infants Act for the Federal Territories differed from that of Sabah in one aspect as it used the term "parent or guardian" and not "both parents or a guardian" as in AMLE Sabah.

In this case the High Court ruled that only the consent of one parent is required in the conversion to Islam of a person below 18 in the Federal Territories.

Article 12(4) of the Federal Constitution reads "For the purposes of cl. (3) the religion of a person under the age of eighteen years shall be decided by his parent or guardian."

The High Court interpreted the term parent to mean father. The equality of rights granted to both parents under the Guardianship of Infants Act, 1961 was held inapplicable on the Muslim father.

In its judgement the High Court held the fatwa or the Mufti of the Federal Territory as persuasive (legal term). The Mufti stated that the father had the right to unilaterally convert the infants to Islam.

Shamala once again went to the high court on 20 July 2004 to apply inter alia for custody, care and control of the infants. The court awarded it with access for the father. In its judgement, it stated that "the right of religious practice of the two infant children shall be exercised equally by both parents" based on the Guardianship of Infants Act 1961. This was in spite of the earlier ruling that this act does not apply to Jeyaganesh who was now a Muslim.

The court also held that the applicable law at the time of conversion was civil law. It even ruled that the infants were "still Hindus at the time of conversion" and that the father should have consulted the mother before converting the infants.

However the court explicitly cautioned the mother from "influencing the infants' religious belief by teaching them her articles of faith or by making them eat pork" or she would risk losing her children. The rationale given was that the court "cannot run away from the fact that the two infant children are now muallaf" (converts to Islam).

As the case has gained prominence various religious organisations, human rights organisations and women's issues organisations have registered watching briefs. En. Haris Bin Mohamed Ibrahim has registered a watching brief on behalf of the Women's Aid Organisation, (WAO), All Women's Action Society (AWAM), Women's Center for Change, Penang (WCC) and Sisters in Islam (SIS).[13] A. Kanesalingam, held watching brief for the Malaysian Consultative Council of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism and Sikhism (MCCBCHS). Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and the Bar Council are also holding watching briefs for this case. The various organisations holding watching brief in this case now call themselves loosely Article 11 after the article of the Federal Constitution guaranteeing freedom of religion.

In 2014, the [19] and both governing and opposition politicians.[20][21]

Conversion from Islam

Muslims who wish to convert from Islam face severe obstacles. For Muslims, particularly ethnic Malays, the right to leave the Islamic faith and adhere to another religion is a controversial question. The legal process of conversion is also unclear; in practice it is very difficult for Muslims to change their religion legally.[22]

In 1999 the High Court ruled that secular courts have no jurisdiction to hear applications by Muslims to change religions. According to the ruling, the religious conversion of Muslims lies solely within the jurisdiction of Islamic courts.

The issue of Muslim apostasy is very sensitive. In 1998 after a controversial incident of attempted conversion, the Government stated that apostates (i.e., Muslims who wish to leave or have left Islam for another religion) would not face government punishment so long as they did not defame Islam after their conversion. However, whether the very act of conversion was an "insult to Islam" was not clarified at the time. The Government opposes what it considers deviant interpretations of Islam, maintaining that the "deviant" groups' extreme views endanger national security. In 2005 international media attention focused on the Sky Kingdom sect whose founder Ayah Pin claimed to be God, and whose members – mostly Malays – were accordingly charged with religious "deviancy" and "humiliating Islam."[23]

In the past, the Government imposed restrictions on certain Islamic groups, primarily the small number of Shi'a. The Government continues to monitor the activities of the Shi'a minority.

In April 2000, the state of Perlis passed a sharia law subjecting Islamic "deviants" and apostates to 1 year of "rehabilitation" (under the Constitution, religion, including sharia law, is a state matter). Leaders of the opposition Islamic party, PAS, have stated the penalty for apostasy – after the apostates are given a period of time to repent and they do not repent – is death.

Many Muslims who have converted to Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and other religions lead "double lives", hiding their new faith from friends and family.[24][25]

General interpretation about the freedom of religion as described in the constitution in Malaysia is that a person has a right to practice his or her religion freely. This freedom does not grant a person a right to change his or her religion "at a whim and fancy".[26] For example a Muslim who wants to convert to another religion must get an explicit permission from a syariah court. The syariah courts rarely grant such requests, except in cases where a person has actually lived his or her whole adult life as a person of different religion, and only wants to change the official documents to reflect this fact. The Islamic interpretation of the situation is that only the syariah courts can decide who is a Muslim and who is not. A person does not have such freedom, and so cannot have a say in the judgement given in a syariah court.

The Lina Joy case challenged this view of the situation by taking the problem of apostasy to the Federal Court in 2007. Lina Joy lost the case and was denied identification as a Christian on her identification card. This cleared the situation about the overlapping areas of jurisdiction between the Islamic and the secular courts in Malaysia.

Apostasy under state law

As Malaysia is a federation, certain matters, such as religion, are handled by state governments. There is subsequently some amount of divergence between different states in the treatment of converts from Islam.

Statistics indicate that Negeri Sembilan has the largest number of converts, with 840 applications made to officially renounce Islam in 2005, 62 of which succeeded. An academic has suggested that this is because Negeri Sembilan is the only state which (officially) permits conversion. A convert must first apply to the Syariah Court for a declaration that he or she is no longer a Muslim; the convert will then be counselled for about a year by a Mufti. If, after this period, the convert still wants to convert, the judge may permit the application. This process is unique to the state; no other state allows Muslims to officially convert. In 2006, the Negeri Sembilan Court also permitted Wong Ah Kiu, a convert from Islam to Buddhism legally known as Nyonya binti Tahir, to be buried in the Buddhist fashion, although her conversion had not been legally recognised while she was still alive. The case marked the first time non-Muslims had testified in a Syariah court in Malaysia.[27]

Lina Joy

Lina Joy, who was born Azalina Jailani, converted from Islam to Christianity, arguing that it came under her right to freedom of religion under Article 11 of the Constitution of Malaysia. She first approached the National Registration Department (NRD) in February 1997, seeking permission to change her name to Lina Joy, and also her religious status. The application was rejected in August 1997 on the grounds that the Syariah Court had not granted permission for her to renounce Islam. In 1998, the NRD allowed the name change, but refused to change the religious status on her identity card.

Joy appealed against this decision in the High Court, arguing that she should not be subject to sharia law, having converted to Christianity. In April 2001, Judge Datuk Faiza Tamby Chik ruled that she could not change her religious identity, because ethnic Malays are defined as Muslims under the Constitution. Joy then took her case to the Court of Appeal. On 19 September 2005, the court ruled in a 2–1 majority decision against Joy. Justice Abdul Aziz and Justice Arifin Zakaria agreed that the NRD was correct in rejecting Joy's application and said it was up to the Syariah Court to settle the issue (Justice Gopal Sri Ram said it was null and void. ). Joy further appealed to the Federal Court of Malaysia, the highest court and the court of last resort in Malaysia.[28] The Federal Court heard the appeal in July 2006, and it was presided by the Chief Justice of Malaysia Ahmad Fairuz Abdul Halim, Chief Judge of Sabah and Sarawak Richard Malanjum, and Federal Court Judge Alauddin Sheriff.

On 30 May 2007, the Federal Court, in a 2–1 decision, dismissed Joy's appeal. The Court's panel ruled that only the Syariah Court had the power to allow Joy to remove her religious designation of Islam from her national identity card. Chief Justice Ahmad Fairuz Sheikh Abdul Halim and Federal Court judge Justice Alauddin Mohd Sheriff delivered the majority decision dismissing her appeal.[29] Chief Judge of Sabah and Sarawak Justice Richard Malanjum dissented.

Nyonya Tahir

Revathi Massosai

Revathi Massosai is a Malaysian woman who was raised as a Hindu but her identity card designates her as a Muslim. She has declared her religion to be Hindu and has petitioned unsuccessfully to have the word "Islam" removed from her identity card. Massosai married a Hindu man, but her marriage is not recognised by the Malaysian government because of the religion issue. Massosai was incarcerated for six months in an Islamic re-education camp because of her attempts to renounce Islam in favour of the Hindu religion.[30] Revathi was denied the guardianship of her new born baby and was not allowed to meet her Hindu husband.


There have been a few high profile incidences and accounts of persecution of people from Muslim backgrounds attempting to convert from the Islamic faith. Some notable cases include:

  • Hilmy Mohd Noor

Hilmy Mohd Noor, in his book "Circumcised Heart", describes his experiences during his detention under the Internal Security Act of Malaysia in what he described as resulting from religious persecution by Malaysian authorities. In the book, he also mentioned incidences of lobbying by some Muslims in his place of employment—a multinational oil company—to get his job terminated.[31][32]

  • Nur'aishah Bokhari
Nur'aishah Bokhari made a writ of habeas corpus by statutory declaration claiming that she was detained involuntarily by her own family members for wanting to convert out of Islam before marrying her Roman Catholic boyfriend. She subsequently escaped and has since left the country.[33]
  • Abdullah or Jeffrey
Jeffrey also known as Abdullah and Or Boon Hua, 36, made the application on the grounds that he had not practised the Islamic teachings since converting to the religion 14 years ago.[34]

Christian proselytisation


Proselytizing of Muslims by members of other religions is not technically prohibited by federal law, even though Muslims may proselytise. It is however prohibited in 10 of the 13 states (i.e. excepting Penang, Sabah, Sarawak and the Federal Territories) and can lead to lengthy jail sentences and many strokes of the rotan (whipping). Most Christian and a few other religious groups in Malaysia put a standard disclaimer on literature and advertisements stating "For non-Muslims only".[35]

Religious Materials

In 2002 the government banned the Bible in Malay (Alkitab) and in Iban (Bup Kudus). The Kudus uses the term "Allah Taala" for God. The ban has since been rescinded. Abdullah Badawi, when in office as Home Minister, claimed it was the work of an overzealous bureaucrat and he had the ban repealed personally.

Some states have laws that prohibit the use of Malay-language religious terms such as usage of the term "Allah" for God by Christians, but the authorities do not enforce them actively.

Distribution of other materials such as books or tapes translated into Bahasa Melayu (local Malay) or Indonesian is also discouraged. However, Malay-language Christian materials are available. Prior to the banning of the Bup Kudus in 2002, the distribution of Malay-language Christian materials faced few restrictions in East Malaysia.

Visas and other restrictions

In recent years, visas for foreign clergy no longer are restricted, and most visas were approved during the period covered by this report. Beginning in March 2000, representative non-Muslims were invited to sit on the immigration committee that approves such visa requests.

Persecution of non-Sunni Muslims

According to government figures there are about 40,000 Shiites living in Malaysia, however there are unofficial figures such as that ballooning to 100,000. Shiites are subjected to persecutions and raids by various state religious authorities in Malaysia.[36] In 1996, a decree by the National Fatwa Council was issued that called for curbs on the Shia minority's right to practise their faith,[37] causing many Shias to practice their religion underground.[38]

In April 2009, the Selangor Islamic Religious Council of Malaysia issued a letter which forbade members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community to offer Friday prayers at their central mosque with immediate effect. Moreover, its failure by the Ahmadis to comply with the terms of the order will result in imprisonment of up to one year and/or a fine up to 3000 Malaysian ringgit. A large notice has been place outside the mosque which states Qadiani Bukan Agama Islam which translates to Qadiani [Ahmadiyyat] is not an Islamic Religion.[39][40]

Places of worship

The government generally respects non-Muslims' right of worship; however, state governments carefully control the building of non-Muslim places of worship and the allocation of land for non-Muslim cemeteries. Approvals for such permits sometimes are granted very slowly.

The Catholic Society of Shah Alam had been lobbying the state government for a permit to build a church in that city for more than 10 years. It was not until recently that the permit was finally granted. The church opened its doors on 10 September 2005.

The new pre-planned capital of Malaysia, Putrajaya, features a grand mosque as a prominent feature of the planned community. On 16 November 2005, Archbishop Murphy Pakiam announced that the Malaysian government had generously allocated a parcel of land in Putrajaya to the Archdiocese of Kuala Lumpur for building a Catholic church-run community centre. The Putrajaya Catholic Church Building Committee was set up on 3 October 2005. According to the committee, "The architectural planning and design will conform to the Liturgical requirements complimenting the ambience of Putrajaya's lush greenery and landscape. We envisage the Putrajaya church to be a hallmark of the Catholic community in Malaysia and showcase the rich heritage of the Malaysian Catholics."

Destruction of Hindu Temples

Approximately nine percent of the population of Malaysia are Indians, of whom nearly 90 percent are practising Hindus. Indian settlers came to Malaysia from India in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

After a violent conflict in Penang between Hindus and Muslims in March 1998, the government announced a nationwide review of unlicensed Hindu temples and shrines. However, implementation was not vigorous and the program was not a subject of public debate. In April 2006, local authorities demolished several Hindu temples to make way for developmental projects. Their excuse was that these temples were unlicensed and squatting on government land.

Between April to May 2006, several Hindu temples were demolished by city hall authorities in the country, accompanied by violence against Hindus.[41] On 21 April 2006, the Malaimel Sri Selva Kaliamman Temple in Kuala Lumpur was reduced to rubble after the city hall sent in bulldozers.[42]

The president of the Consumers Association of Shah Alam from demolishing a 107-year-old Hindu temple. The growing Islamization in Malaysia is a cause for concern to many Malaysians who follow minority religions such as Hinduism.[43]

On 11 May 2006, armed city hall officers from Kuala Lumpur forcefully demolished part of a 60-year-old suburban temple that serves more than 1,000 Hindus. The "Hindu Rights Action Force", a coalition of several NGO's, have protested these demolitions by lodging complaints with the Malaysian Prime Minister.[44] Many Hindu advocacy groups have protested what they allege is a systematic plan of temple cleansing in Malaysia. The official reason given by the Malaysian government has been that the temples were built "illegally". However, several of the temples are centuries old.[44]

According to a lawyer for the Hindu Rights Action Task Force, a Hindu temple is demolished in Malaysia once every three weeks.[45]

Malaysian Muslims have also grown more anti-Hindu over the years. In response to the proposed construction of a temple in Selangor, Muslims chopped off the head of a cow to protest, with leaders saying there would be blood if a temple was constructed in Shah Alam.[46]

Laws in the country, especially those concerning religious identity, are generally slanted towards compulsion into converting to Islam.[47]


The first Islamic call to prayer or Azan (also spelt Adhan), known as "subuh" (or dawn), occurs at around 5.30 AM with the exact time drifting throughout the year. Most Malaysian business start work at 9 AM. Many mosques amplify the early prayer call by way of loud speakers, and while in some cases only a few neighbouring homes are affected, some large mosques (for example the State Mosque of Selangor which has speakers on its minarets) have prayer calls which can be heard in a large surrounding area.

In 2004 the Bar Council of Malaysia journal "Infoline" carried an article which questioned the need for the Azan as it was disturbing to non-Muslims and not needful. The article was condemned because Azan is a religious requirement.

In December 2004, Minister of Culture, Arts and Heritage Datuk Seri Utama Dr Rais Yatim mentioned in an interview that the Azan may be disturbing. He stated "...the Muslim call for Subuh (dawn) prayer may disturb the sleep of non-Muslims but they have accepted this as a fundamental part of Islam. But how loud the volume of the PA system in the mosque should be, is another matter."[48]

Excessive noise however is common matter of uneasiness among some Malaysians because non-Muslims also often practise rituals that cause much discomfort to others (Muslims and non-Muslims alike). Among these are Chinese funeral processions that are often accompanied by drums and cymbals, and other rituals not exclusive to the Chinese.

A local daily, The Star reported that a proposal by Kepong MP Dr Tan Seng Giaw to regulate the Azan so that it will not be too loud or disturb non-Muslims caused a stir in the Dewan Rakyat.[49] Muslim MPs accused him of being insensitive and Minister in the Prime Minister's Department Datuk Mohamad Nazri Abdul Aziz blasted the DAP member for allegedly trying to destroy the multi-religious tolerance in the country.


In Malaysia, there is a rebate in income tax for money paid to the government in form of "zakat", or the obligatory alms Muslims must give to the poor. However, money paid to other causes in the name of other religions under similar circumstances is given only income tax relief, and such relief is given only if the particular beneficiary has obtained approved status from the Malaysian Government, which is difficult in practice. Money donated to such approved beneficiary is only deducted from the income on which the amount of tax is based, while zakat is deducted from the amount of tax itself. For example, suppose a person earning RM 50,000 owes a tax of RM 3,000 and donates RM 1,000 to zakat, the whole of the RM 1,000 is directly deducted from the RM 3,000, whereas donations to other approved beneficiary would permit only a deduction of the RM 1,000 against the RM 50,000. The former being a tax credit and the latter being a tax deduction.

Zakat (or tithe) monies, however, are paid by Muslims directly to official organisations run by state governments. Receipts are issued out and must be submitted to apply for tax relief. The zakat organisations themselves are governed by specific Islamic rulings defining the categories of people who qualify to receive the alms as well as the amount to be paid out by Muslims based on their income.

In contrast, charities in Malaysia are run privately by voluntary organisations, collecting voluntary donations from the general public, not compulsory tithes – thus the difference in treatment by the government.

Additionally, income tax relief granted to companies for donation made to tax exempt charities is restricted to 5% of the agggregate income of the company. Not all non-Muslim charities are granted tax exempt status, it is only given to registered and approved charities, partly to prevent abuse. There are stringent requirements to gain this advantage. Having earned this advantage these charities are further disadvantage in that their prospective donors are discouraged from donating monies to these charities because the donors are given tax relief for up to 5% of their aggregate income only.

Inheritance under Sharia law

Upon the death of a Muslim, his or her estate shall be distributed according to sharia law. This is called the Faraid or the Islamic law of Inheritance. A Muslim is allowed to make a will, called a wasiat, but only one-third of his estate shall be disposed of according to the will. Furthermore, the requirement under sharia law is that disposition according to wills shall not benefit any person opposed to Islam as a religion. This situation applies throughout Peninsula Malaysia and Sabah. In Sarawak, a Muslim testator may dispose one-third of his property to anyone he or she wishes.

Freedom of expression


Movies which depict people considered prophets in Islam are generally censored or banned as the depiction of prophets is considered "haraam" (not allowed) under Islam. One notable case was the banning of The Prince of Egypt when its producers would not accept censorship of the character Moses (Musa in Islam).

However, in a more recent case, The Passion of the Christ was allowed, after the intervention of the Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, under strict conditions restricting its viewership to Christians with sales of tickets being carried out by various churches and para-church organisations.

In 2004, Yasmin Ahmad's (herself a Malaysian Muslim) film Sepet was rejected by censors who asked that scenes be removed. 10 scenes were objectionable. Among objectionable material queried in the movie was why the movie did not depict any attempt to convert Jason (the Chinese non-Muslim main character) to Islam after he had fallen in love with a Malay girl.

In 2014 the biblical film Noah was banned by the Malaysian authorities reasoning that the film was un-Islamic. [50][51]

Print media

On 10 December 2007, Malaysian authorities banned the Malay-language section of a Catholic weekly newspaper, The Catholic Herald due to its use of the word Allah, the name for God which Christians had used for hundreds of years in the country.[52][53] Their reasoning is that the word Allah by Christians would confuse Malay Muslims. The Herald meanwhile, filed suit at the beginning of December following warnings that its permit could be revoked if it did not cease use of the word "Allah" in the Malay language section of its newspaper.[54] Countering the Herald's suit, the Malaysian security authorities on 30 December, warned its printing permit would not be renewed if it continued using the word "Allah," which the government continued to say can only be used by Muslims.[55]

The Catholic Church began its challenge of the government gag order prohibiting it from using the word "Allah" in its Herald-The Catholic Weekly- through a judicial review. The government had earlier argued that the church's application is frivolous and had urged the court to throw it out but Madam Justice Lau Bee Lan disagreed and allowed the application by the Titular Roman Catholic Archbishop of Kuala Lumpur, Datuk Murphy Pakiam, for leave to sue the government regarding the use of the word "Allah" to proceed. Three points that were raised in the lawsuit. The first is for the court to declare that the government's action in prohibiting The Herald from using the word "Allah" is illegal and null and void. The second is for a court declaration that the Archbishop as publisher of The Herald is entitled to use the word "Allah" and lastly, that the court should declare that the word "Allah" is not exclusive to the religion of Islam.[56]

Bibles and religious literature

  • The Sabah Evangelical Church of Borneo also took legal action after the authorities banned the import of Christian books containing the word Allah.[57]
  • In January 2008, children's Christian books with illustrations of prophets were confiscated from several bookstores around the country.[58]
  • In May 2008, Malaysian customs confiscated 3 Christian CDs with the words Allah written on them from a Christian Sarawakian lady, Jill Ireland Lawrence Bill. She is currently challenging the confiscation of the CDs in court.[59]
  • In March 2010, the Malaysian Home Ministry seized 30,000 Malay bibles from a port in Kuching, Sarawak.[60]
  • In January 2014, the Selangor Islamic Religious department (Jais) raided the Bible Society of Malaysia and confiscated 320 Malay and Iban bibles, which catered for Sabah and Sarawak Christians.[61][62]
  • In October 2014, Malaysian Customs seized Christian books and CDs from a pastor at the low cost terminal at Kuala Lumpur International Airport who was on the way back to Sabah from Medan.[63][64][65]

Individual words

Under subsection 48(3) and (4) of the Penang Islamic Religious Administration Enactment 2004, non-Muslims are penalised for using the following words, or to write or publish them, in any form, version or translation in any language or for use in any publicity material in any medium: "Allah", "Firman Allah", "Ulama", "Hadith", "Ibadah", "Kaabah", "Qadhi'", "Illahi", "Wahyu", "Mubaligh", "Syariah", "Qiblat", "Haji", "Mufti", "Rasul", "Iman", "Dakwah", "Wali", "Fatwa", "Imam", "Nabi", "Sheikh", "Khutbah", "Tabligh", "Akhirat", "Azan", "Al Quran", "As Sunnah", "Auliya'", "Karamah", "Syahadah", "Baitullah", "Musolla", "Zakat Fitrah", "Hajjah", "Taqwa" and "Soleh".[66][67][68]

Protests against religious freedom

On 5 November 2006, a group of Muslims gathered outside the Church of Our Lady of Lourdes, Silibin, in the town of Ipoh, Perak to protest an alleged conversion of Muslim Malays out of Islam. The allegation was spread via a text message that claimed the church would baptise a group of Muslim Malays. The message proved to be false as the church celebrated only a Holy Communion service for 110 Indian children. The message further alleged that a famous Malaysian sportsman Azhar Mansor was leaving Islam to embrace Christianity. The police had traced the message to a lady who had met Harussani Zakaria, mufti of the state of Perak in a meeting. He has stated that the message was to remain within the confines of the meeting but had made no attempt to verify the authenticity of the message nor report it to the police as converting Muslims is illegal under Malaysian law. On 17 November, Azhar Mansor declared that he had not renounced Islam,[69] and Umno president Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi said that there should now be an end to the speculation.

Destruction of Religious Property

Church Attacks

The Metro Tabernacle, an Assemblies of God church in Desa Melawati, Kuala Lumpur was set on fire on 8 January 2010.[70] While in Malacca, black paint was splashed on the outer wall of the Malacca Baptist Church in Durian Daun.[71]

Mosque/Prayer Halls (Surau) Attacks

There were also incidences of attacks being made onto Muslim places of worship. In January 2010, two separate prayer halls (surau) in Muar became targets of arson attacks.[72] And as recent as August 2010, another prayer hall in Seremban was subjected to vandalism. The prayer hall was defaced by red paint and littered with alcohol bottles.[73]

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ Constitution of Malaysia on Wikisource
  3. ^ "Jais flexes muscles over non-Muslim usage of 'Allah' | Malaysia". The Malay Mail Online. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  4. ^ "In pursuit of Christians, Jais set to test limits of 'Allah' ban | Malaysia". The Malay Mail Online. 26 December 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  5. ^ Ahmad, Dzulkefly. "The religious pluralism debate". The Malaysian Insider. 
  6. ^ ibid.
  7. ^ Marriage Procedures Between Muslim and Non-muslim, Malaysia Government Official Portal. Accessed 23 September 2007.
  8. ^ Marriage in Malaysia, British High Commission, Kuala Lumpur. Accessed 23 September 2007
  9. ^ "Federal Court needs time over Subashini appeal", The Star, 24 September 2007.
  10. ^ "Lawyer: Syariah Court has no jurisdiction over Subashini", The Star, 19 September 2007.
  11. ^ "Malaysia court rejects Hindu bid". BBC News. 27 December 2007. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  12. ^ a b c "A view on infant conversions to Islam", Aliran Monthly. Accessed 23 September 2007.
  13. ^ "Safeguard Rights Of Wives And Children Upon Conversion Of Husbands To Islam", Women's Aid Organisation, 5 February 2007.
  14. ^ Malaysia. "High Court overrides Shariah Court, orders custody of Muslim children to their Hindu mother". The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  15. ^ editor. "Custody of two converted kids goes to Hindu mom". The Malaysian Times. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  16. ^ "Muslim convert grabs son from ex-wife". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  17. ^ sarban singh. "Father who allegedly took son has custody order too, says OCPD – Nation | The Star Online". Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  18. ^ "IGP cans child abduction complaint, says Muslim dad didn't 'kidnap' son | Malaysia". The Malay Mail Online. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  19. ^ "Son snatch: WAO takes IGP to task for not acting against Deepa's ex-husband". Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  20. ^ "‘Take action against Izwan’ | Free Malaysia Today". Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  21. ^ "POLICE ARE BEING IRRESPONSIBLE: 'Talk-only' MCA, MIC slam inaction over Muslim convert kidnap case". Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  22. ^ For a recent case history, see: Perlez, Jane (24 August 2006). "Once Muslim, Now Christian and Caught in the Courts". New York Times. Retrieved 25 August 2006. 
  23. ^ "Malaysian sect members arrested". BBC News. 4 July 2005. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  24. ^ Pressly, Linda (15 November 2006). Life as a secret Christian convert. BBC News.
  25. ^ Arnholz, Katrin (28 June 2006). Muslim women who share a secret love.
  26. ^ Boston News about Lina Joy conversion case/
  27. ^ "Syariah Court Decides Nyonya Tahir Not A Muslim". Bernama. 23 January 2006. Retrieved 2 May 2007. 
  28. ^ "Lina Joy's Case: Court Will Give Decision As Fast As Possible", Bernama, 4 July 2006.
  29. ^ "Lina Joy Loses Appeal". theStarOnline. Retrieved 30 May 2007. 
  30. ^ "Malaysia 'convert' claims cruelty". BBC News. 6 July 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2007. 
  31. ^ Nor, Hilmy: "Circumcised Heart", Petaling Jaya: Kairos Research Centre, 1999, ISBN 983-9506-05-6
  32. ^ Interlit Magazine: Synopsis of Circumcised Heart by Miriam Adeney, p. 23; Vol. 41 No. 2, Colorado Springs: Cook Communications Ministries International, June 2004 (URL last accessed on 21 May 2007)
  33. ^ Isu Murtad Nur'aishah Bokhari: Statutory Declaration by Nur'aishah Bokhari (URL last accessed on 21 May 2007)
  34. ^ News from [1] (URL last accessed on 18 August 2008)
  35. ^ "Religious row flares in Malaysia". BBC News. 15 July 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009. 
  36. ^ Ariffin, Lisa J. "Malaysian Shiites face growing persecution". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  37. ^ Malaysia. "Ignorance, extremist Sunnis fuelling anti-Shia sentiments in Malaysia, says academic". The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  38. ^ "The New York Times". Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  39. ^ "MAIS forbids Ahmadiyya worship". thenutgraph. Retrieved 26 October 2010. 
  41. ^ Temple row – a dab of sensibility please,
  42. ^ gatago.comMuslims Destroy Century-Old Hindu Temple,
  43. ^ Pressure on multi-faith Malaysia,BBC
  44. ^ a b Hindu group protests 'temple cleansing' in Malaysia,Financial Express
  45. ^ Malaysia ethnic Indians in uphill fight on religion Reuters India – 8 November 2007
  46. ^ Malaysia Muslims protest proposed Hindu temple Associated Press – 28 August 2009
  47. ^ Malaysia strips Hindus of rights Daily Pioneer – 19 January 2010
  48. ^ New Strait Times, 20 December 2004
  49. ^ 28-Sep-2005 issue
  50. ^ "Malaysia Bans Biblical Epic 'Noah' – ABC News". 16 November 1991. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  51. ^ """Malaysia bans Noah film as "un-Islamic. Channel NewsAsia. 5 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  52. ^ Company News Story
  53. ^ Richard Lloyd Parry (16 January 2010). "Security increased at Christian churches as Allah row divides Malaysia". The Times. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  54. ^ Malaysia Christians challenge ban on word 'Allah'
  55. ^ [2]
  56. ^ "Court Allows Archbishop To Sue Govt". Sin Chew. 5 May 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2008. 
  57. ^ "'"Malaysian church, weekly newspaper sue government for banning use of word 'Allah. Associated Press. 28 December 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2007. 
  58. ^ Confiscating of Christian Literature – Council of Churches of Malaysia
  59. ^ Malaysia – "No" To Christian Allah
  60. ^ Christians say fed up with Najib administration
  61. ^ Ariffin, Lisa J. (2 January 2014). "Jais raids Bible Society, Malay bibles seized". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  62. ^ Malaysia. "Selangor Islamic authorities raid Bible Society of Malaysia, 300 copies of Alkitab seized". The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  63. ^
  64. ^
  65. ^
  66. ^ "'"Check law first, Karpal asks Penang government over decree banning 'Islamic words. Malasia Insider. 
  67. ^ "Penang mufti outlaws 40 words to non-Muslims". New Straits Times. 2014. 
  68. ^ "ENACTMENT". Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  69. ^ Mariner Azhar: I have not renounced Islam, theSun, 17 November 2006.
  70. ^ "M'sian church fire-bombed". Straits Times. 8 January 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2010. 
  71. ^ "New cases of attempted arson and vandalism being probed". Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  72. ^ "Two surau in Muar firebombed". Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  73. ^ "Surau attacked with red paint". Retrieved 9 September 2013. 

External links

  • "International Religious Freedom Report 2006 – Malaysia". US Department of State. Retrieved 8 November 2006. 
  • Apostates in Malaysia
  • Kumar, R. Surenthira (13 April 2006). Woman can appeal against NRD's refusal to remove 'Islam' on her NRIC. Malaysia Today.
  • Imran Imtiaz Shah Yacob, Asia Sentinel (27 April 2007) "Doing the Impossible: Quitting Islam in Malaysia"
  • Malaysia at the Crossroads
  • List of Islamisation
  • Oh God! Malaysian Christians barred from saying `Allah' by Venkatesan Vembu, Daily News & Analysis, 25 December 2007no
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