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Hayao Miyazaki

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Title: Hayao Miyazaki  
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Subject: Studio Ghibli, History of anime, The Wind Rises, Tokyo Anime Award, Ponyo
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Hayao Miyazaki

_202" title="Studio Ghibli">Studio Ghibli with funding from Tokuma Shoten. His first film with Ghibli, Laputa: Castle in the Sky (1986) recounts the adventure of two orphans seeking a magical castle-island that floats in the sky; My Neighbor Totoro (Tonari no Totoro, 1988) tells of the adventure of two girls and their interaction with forest spirits; and Kiki's Delivery Service (1989), adapted from the 1985 novel of the same name by Eiko Kadono, tells the story of a small-town girl who leaves home to begin life as a witch in a big city. Miyazaki's fascination with flight is evident throughout these films, ranging from the ornithopters flown by pirates in Castle in the Sky, to the Totoro and the Cat Bus soaring through the air, and Kiki flying her broom.

In 1992, Miyazaki directed Porco Rosso, an adventure film set in the "Adriatic" during the 1920s. The film was a notable departure for Miyazaki, in that the main character was an adult man, an anti-fascist aviator transformed into an anthropomorphic pig. The film is about a titular bounty hunter, voiced by Shūichirō Moriyama, and an American soldier of fortune, voiced by Akio Ōtsuka. The film explores the tension between selfishness and duty. Porco Rosso was released on July 19, 1992. That August, Studio Ghibli set up its headquarters in Koganei, Tokyo.[14]

In 1995, Miyazaki began work on Princess Mononoke. Starring Yuriko Ishida, Yōji Matsuda, Akihiro Miwa and Yūko Tanaka, the story is about a struggle between the animal spirits inhabiting the forest and the humans exploiting the forest for industry, culminating in an uneasy co-existence and boundary transcending relationships between the main characters. In Mononoke he revisits the ecological and political themes and continues his cinematic exploration of the transience of existence he began in Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind. Both films have their roots in ideas and artwork he created in the late 1970s and early 1980s but Helen McCarthy notes that Miyazaki's vision has developed, "from the utopian visions of Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind to the mature and kindly humanism of Princess Mononoke.".[8] The film was released on July 19, 1997 and was both a financial and critical success; it won the Japan Academy Prize for Best Picture. Yvonne Tasker notes, "Princess Mononoke marked a turning point in Miyazaki's career not merely because it broke Japanese box office records, but also because it, arguably, marked the emergence (through a distribution deal with Disney) into the global animation markets". Miyazaki went into semi-retirement after directing Princess Mononoke. In working on the film, Miyazaki redrew 80,000 of the film's frames himself. He also stated at one point that "Princess Mononoke" would be his last film.[15] Tokuma Shoten merged with Studio Ghibli that June.[14]

During this period of semi-retirement, Miyazaki spent time with the daughters of a friend. One of these friends would become his inspiration for Miyazaki's next film which would also become his biggest commercial success to date, Spirited Away. The film stars Rumi Hiiragi, Mari Natsuki and Miyu Irino, and is the story of a girl, forced to survive in a bizarre spirit world, who works in a bathhouse for spirits after her parents are turned into pigs by the sorceress who owns it. The film was released on July 2001 and grossed ¥30.4 billion (approximately $300 million) at the box office. Critically acclaimed, the film was considered one of the best films of the 2000s.[16] It won a Japan Academy Prize, a Golden Bear award at the 2002 Berlin Film Festival, and an Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. In his book, Otaku, Hiroki Azuma observed: "Between 2001 and 2007, Otaku forms and markets quite rapidly won social recognition in Japan.", and cites Miyazaki's win at the Academy Awards for Spirited Away among his examples.[17]

21st century

In July 2004, Miyazaki completed production on Howl's Moving Castle, based on Diana Wynne Jones' 1986 fantasy novel of the same name. Miyazaki came out of retirement following the sudden departure of Mamoru Hosoda, the film's original director. The film premiered at the 2004 Venice International Film Festival and was later released on November 24, 2004, again to positive reviews. It won the Golden Osella award for animation technology, and received an Oscar nomination for Best Animated Feature.

In 2005, Miyazaki received a lifetime achievement award at the Venice Film Festival. On February 10, 2005, Studio Ghibli announced that it was ending its relationship with Tokuma Shoten. The studio moved its headquarters to Koganei, Tokyo, and acquired the copyrights of Miyazaki's works and business rights from Tokuma Shoten.[18][19]

In 2006, Miyazaki's son Gorō Miyazaki completed his first film, Tales from Earthsea, starring Jun'ichi Okada and Bunta Sugawara and based on several stories by Ursula K. Le Guin. Hayao Miyazaki had long aspired to make an anime of this work and had repeatedly asked for permission from the author, Ursula K. Le Guin. However, he had been refused every time. Instead, Miyazaki produced Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind and Shuna no tabi, (The Journey of Shuna) as substitutes (some of the ideas from Shuna no tabi were diverted to this movie). When Le Guin finally requested that Miyazaki produce an anime adaptation of her work, he refused, because he had lost the desire to do so. Le Guin remembers this differently: "In August 2005, Mr Toshio Suzuki of Studio Ghibli came with Mr Hayao Miyazaki to talk with me and my son (who controls the trust which owns the Earthsea copyrights). We had a pleasant visit in my house. It was explained to us that Mr Hayao wished to retire from film making, and that the family and the studio wanted Mr Hayao's son Goro, who had never made a film at all, to make this one. We were very disappointed, and also anxious, but we were given the impression, indeed assured, that the project would be always subject to Mr Hayao's approval. With this understanding, we made the agreement." Throughout the film's production, Gorō and his father were not speaking to each other, due to a dispute over whether or not Gorō was ready to direct.[20] It was originally to be produced by Miyazaki, but he declined as he was already in the middle of producing Howl's Moving Castle. Ghibli decided to make Gorō, who had yet to head any animated films, the producer instead. Tales from Earthsea was released on July 29, 2006, to mixed reviews.

In 2006, reported Hayao Miyazaki's plans to direct another film, rumored to be set in Kobe. Among areas Miyazaki's team visited during pre-production were an old café run by an elderly couple, and the view of a city from high in the mountains. The exact location of these places was censored from Studio Ghibli's production diaries. The studio also announced that Miyazaki had begun creating storyboards for the film and that they were being produced in watercolor because the film would have an "unusual visual style." Studio Ghibli said the production time would be about 20 months, with release slated for Summer 2008.

In 2007, the film's title was publicly announced as Yūki Amami. Toshio Suzuki noted that "70 to 80% of the film takes place at sea. It will be a director's challenge on how they will express the sea and its waves with freehand drawing." Ponyo was released on July 19, 2008, to positive reviews and the film grossed $202 million worldwide.

Miyazaki later co-wrote the screenplay for Studio Ghibli's next film, The Secret World of Arrietty, based on Mary Norton's 1952 novel The Borrowers. The film was the directorial debut of Hiromasa Yonebayashi, a Ghibli animator. Starring Mirai Shida, Ryūnosuke Kamiki, Tomokazu Miura, Keiko Takeshita, Shinobu Otake and Kirin Kiki, the film focuses on a small family known as the Borrowers who must avoid detection when discovered by humans. The film was released on July 17, 2010, again to positive reviews, and grossed $145 million worldwide. In 2011, Miyazaki co-wrote From Up on Poppy Hill, based on the 1980 manga of the same name written by Tetsurō Sayama and illustrated by Chizuru Takahashi. The film stars Masami Nagasawa, Junichi Okada, Shunsuke Kazama and Teruyuki Kagawa. Set in Yokohama, the film's story focuses on Umi Matsuzaki, a high school student who is forced to fend for herself when her sailor father goes missing from the seaside town. The film was released on July 16, 2011, once again to positive reviews.

On December 13, 2012, Studio Ghibli announced that Miyazaki worked on his next film, The Wind Rises, based on his manga of the same name, with plans to simultaneously release it with Kaguya-hime no Monogatari.[22] The film stars Hideaki Anno, Hidetoshi Nishijima, Masahiko Nishimura and Miori Takimoto. The Wind Rises tells the story of Jiro Horikoshi, designer of the Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter aircraft which served in World War II. The film was released on July 20, 2013 and was released in North America on February 21, 2014 by Touchstone Pictures.

On September 1, 2013, numerous Japanese television networks, including NHK, reported on the announcement, at the Venice Film Festival, by Ghibli President Koji Hoshino, that Miyazaki was retiring from creating feature length animated films. Miyazaki confirmed his retirement during a press conference, in Tokyo, on September 6, 2013.[5][23]

Manga career

Miyazaki never abandoned his childhood dream of becoming a manga artist. His professional career in this medium begins in 1969 with the publication of his manga interpretation of Puss in Boots. Serialized in 12 chapters in the Sunday edition of Tokyo Shimbun, from January to March 1969. Printed in colour and created for promotional purposes in conjunction with his work on Yabuki's animated film.

That same year pseudonymous serialization started of Miyazaki's original manga People of the Desert. Created in the style of illustrated stories he read, in boys' magazines and Tankōbon volumes, while growing up, such as Soji Yamakawa's Shōnen ōja (少年王者 shōnen ōja) and in particular Tetsuji Fukushima's Evil Lord of the Desert (沙漠の魔王 Sabaku no maō). Miyazaki's Desert People is a continuation of that tradition and a precursor for his own creations Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind and The Journey of Shuna. In People of the Desert expository text is presented separately from the monochrome artwork with additional text balloons inside the panels for dialogue. 26 chapters were serialized in Boys and Girls Newspaper (少年少女新聞 Shōnen shōjo shinbun) between September 12, 1969 (Issue 28) and March 15, 1970 (issue 53). Published under the pseudonym Akitsu Saburō (秋津三朗 ). His manga interpretation of Animal Treasure Island, made in conjunction with Ikeda's animated film, was serialized in the Sunday edition of Tokyo Shimbun from January to March 1971. (13 chapters, in colour).[9]

His major work in the manga format is Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind, created intermittently from 1981 through 1994. In Japan it was first serialized in Tokuma Shoten's monthly magazine Animage and has been collected, after slight modification, in seven tankōbon volumes, spanning 1060 pages. Nausicaä has been translated and released outside Japan and has sold millions of copies worldwide. On March 11, 1984 the anime film of the same title was released. The characters and settings of manga and film have their common roots in the Image Boards Miyazaki created to visualise his ideas in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The anime is an amalgamation of the first sixteen chapters of the manga. In the manga Miyazaki explores the themes at greater length and in greater depth with a greater host of characters and a more expansive universe which he continued to expand over an additional decade after the release of the film. Nausicaä panels were printed monochrome in sepia toned ink. To advance the narrative, text balloons and artwork are employed almost exclusively.

Other works include The Journey of Shuna, released, in 1983, and Hikōtei Jidai, first serialized in Model Graphix in 1989. Both were created in watercolour. The latter was the basis of Porco Rosso. Hayao Miyazaki's Daydream Data Notes contains short manga, essays and samples from Miyazaki's sketchbooks, bundled in book form in 1992.Shuna, in 1987, and selections from Daydream Data Notes, in 1995, were dramatised for radio broadcast.[27]

In October 2006, A Trip to Tynemouth was published in Japan. The book contains a translated collection of three of the young adult short stories written by Robert Westall, who grew up in World War II England. The most famous story, first published in a collection called Break of Dark, is titled Blackham's Wimpy, the name of a Vickers Wellington Bomber featured in the story. The nickname comes from the character J. Wellington Wimpy from the Popeye comics and cartoons (The Wellington was named for Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, victor over Napoleon). Miyazaki worked as editor, provided the cover illustrations and created short manga for addition in the book. Miyazaki based his manga and illustrations on Westall's short stories, including parts about Blackham's Bomber, and added fictional elements of his own. Depicting a narrator, as an anthropomorphised pig, who has an imaginary meeting with Westall, depicted as a terrier, on a trip to Tynemouth. Westall's short stories themselves are translated into Japanese but are otherwise left unchanged for this publication.[28][29]

In early 2009, Miyazaki began writing a new manga called Kaze Tachinu (風立ちぬ The Wind Rises), telling the story of Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter designer Jiro Horikoshi. The manga was first published in two issues of the Model Graphix magazine, published on February 25 and March 25, 2009.[30] Miyazaki ultimately required 9 chapters to finish the manga. The last chapter was published in the January 2010 issue of the magazine.

Following his announced retirement, it was revealed during an NHK TV broadcast that Miyazaki was serializing a currently untitled samurai manga while charging the magazine no fee for his artwork.[31]

Personal life

In October 1965, Miyazaki married fellow animator Akemi Ota, with whom he had two sons, Gorō and Keisuke.[32] Miyazaki's dedication to his work has often been reported to have impacted negatively on his relationship with Gorō.[33] He has expressed he does not wish to create a dynasty of animators and his son has to create a name for himself.[34] Nonetheless he has shown support of his son's career in animation in recent times, co-writing the screenplay for Gorō's feature From Up on Poppy Hill and is in the process of developing the story for his son's third film as of November 2011.[35]


For the release of his 2013 film The Wind Rises, Miyazaki and other Studio Ghibli staff members renewed criticism of Prime Minister Shinzō Abe's policies, and the proposed Constitutional amendment to Article 96, a clause that stipulates procedures needed for revisions, which would allow Abe to revise Article 9 of the Constitution of Japan, which outlaws war as a means to settle international disputes.[36][37][38] After the release of the film he received approval as well as negative criticism online for his anti-war message. Some online critics have labeled his film, as well as his expressed opinions, as "Anti-Japanese" and have called Miyazaki a "traitor".[39][40][41] This is due to the film's subject, a young man who designs planes during World War II. Among the planes used in the film is the Mitsubishi A5M, a predecessor of the Mitsubishi A6M Zero. Since he was young, Miyazaki has had a fascination with planes, in part, due to his father's line of work on A6M Zero fighter planes during the Second World War.[42] This fascination is made obvious by the recurring use of planes in his films; from Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind to Porco Rosso and beyond. This film, however, is Miyazaki's first to be inspired by a historical figure. Despite the unexpected backlash from political viewers, The Wind Rises had the biggest opening of the year in Japan, taking in 960 million yen, or $9.78 million.

Miyazaki has expressed his opinion on politics several times in the past, including a disapproval in the discussion of the revision of the Japanese constitution, and Abe's denial of Japanese World War II crimes. Part of the controversy over The Wind Rises stems from his statement that proper compensation should be given to comfort women. While some were critical of his remarks, they were welcomed by others.[39][43] This is not his only instance of controversy. In 2003, Miyazaki won an Oscar for his film Spirited Away but did not attend the 75th Academy Awards in Hollywood, Los Angeles in protest of the United States' involvement in the Iraq War, later stating that "I didn't want to visit a country that was bombing Iraq." He did not publicly express this opinion at the request of his producer until 2009, when he lifted his boycott and attended the San Diego Comic Con International as a favor to his friend John Lasseter.[44]


Miyazaki has claimed he was retiring several times, but on September 6, 2013, he assured his fans that he is "quite serious" this time. He believes he is getting too old for the business, and wants to make room for new animators. He also says that the task of animating is "quite strenuous" and that he cannot work as long as he was once able to. However, he plans on pursuing new goals, such as working on the Studio Ghibli museum, on which he commented "I might even become an exhibit myself".[45] Studio Ghibli producer Toshio Suzuki revealed that Miyazaki will continue to illustrate manga and is currently working on a serialized samurai series.[31] Fellow animator Isao Takahata has publicly stated that he believes Miyazaki's retirement to be non-permanent, "...I think there is a decent chance that may change. I think so, since I've known him a long time. Don't be at all surprised if that happens."[46] During a New Year's Eve radio show, broadcast on Tokyo FM, on December 31, 2013, Toshio Suzuki speculated that Miyazaki might revoke his latest retirement (apparently his sixth to date).[47]

A previous home that Miyazaki spent part of his childhood in has been transformed into a museum. The home's current resident, Asuko Thomas, says that she did not know that the house has once belonged to the family of the world renowned animator. The current owner of the house has named the gallery "Hanna", meaning "bond" and "harmony". Many elements of the house have been the inspiration for scenes in several of his films. One example is the stairs in the household, very similar to the hidden stairs in My Neighbor Totoro.[48]

Themes, influences and style

Miyazaki's works are characterized by the recurrence of progressive themes, such as environmentalism, pacifism, feminism, and the absence of villains. His films are also frequently concerned with childhood transition and a marked preoccupation with flight.[10]

Miyazaki's narratives are notable for not pitting a hero against an unsympathetic antagonist. In Spirited Away, Miyazaki states "the heroine [is] thrown into a place where the good and bad dwell together. [...] She manages not because she has destroyed the 'evil', but because she has acquired the ability to survive."[49] Even though Miyazaki sometimes feels pessimistic about the world, he prefers to show children a positive world view instead, and rejects simplistic stereotypes of good and evil.[50]

Miyazaki's films often emphasize environmentalism and the Earth's fragility.[51] In an interview with The New Yorker, Margaret Talbot stated that Miyazaki believes much of modern culture is "thin and shallow and fake", and he "not entirely jokingly" looked forward to "a time when Tokyo is submerged by the ocean and the NTV tower becomes an island, when the human population plummets and there are no more high-rises."[52] Growing up in the Shōwa period was an unhappy time for him because "nature – the mountains and rivers – was being destroyed in the name of economic progress."[53] Miyazaki is critical of capitalism, globalization, and their impacts on modern life.[54] Commenting on the 1954 Animal Farm animated film, he has said that "exploitation is not only found in communism, capitalism is a system just like that. I believe a company is common property of the people that work there. But that is a socialistic idea."[55] Nonetheless, he suggests that adults should not "impose their vision of the world on children."[56]

Nausicaä, Princess Mononoke and Howl's Moving Castle feature anti-war themes. In 2003, when Spirited Away won the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, Miyazaki did not attend the awards show personally. He later explained that it was because he "didn't want to visit a country that was bombing Iraq".[57]

Miyazaki has been called a feminist by Studio Ghibli President Toshio Suzuki, in reference to his attitude to female workers.[58] This is evident in the all-female factories of Porco Rosso and Princess Mononoke, as well as the matriarchal bath-house of Spirited Away. Many of Miyazaki's films are populated by strong female protagonists that go against gender roles common in Japanese animation and fiction.[59]

Creation process and animation style

Princess Mononoke was Miyazaki's first film to use computer graphics. In this sequence, the demon snakes are computer-generated and composited onto Ashitaka, who is hand-drawn.

Miyazaki takes a leading role when creating his films, frequently serving as both writer and director. He personally reviewed every frame used in his early films, though due to health concerns over the high workload he now delegates some of the workload to other Ghibli members.[60] In a 1999 interview, Miyazaki said, "at this age, I cannot do the work I used to. If my staff can relieve me and I can concentrate on directing, there are still a number of movies I'd like to make."[61]

Miyazaki uses very human-like movements in his animation. In addition, much of the art is done using water colors.

In contrast to American animation, the script and storyboards are created together, and animation begins before the story is finished and while storyboards are developing.[56][62]

Miyazaki has used traditional animation throughout the animation process, though computer-generated imagery was employed starting with Princess Mononoke to give "a little boost of elegance".[63] In an interview with the Financial Times, Miyazaki said "it's very important for me to retain the right ratio between working by hand and computer. I have learnt that balance now, how to use both and still be able to call my films 2D."[64] Digital paint was also used for the first time in parts of Princess Mononoke in order to meet release deadlines.[65] It was used as standard for subsequent films. However, in his 2008 film Ponyo, Miyazaki went back to traditional hand-drawn animation for everything, saying "hand drawing on paper is the fundamental of animation."[66] Studio Ghibli's computer animation department was dissolved before production on Ponyo was started, and Miyazaki has decided to keep to hand drawn animation.[34]


Among Miyazaki's earliest influences are the illustrated stories he read in boys' magazines and manga Tankōbon during his childhood. He has indicated that he does not only like their subject matter and their presentation of the artwork but also that he came to appreciate the pacing of their adventures, allowing for a thorough immersion in the stories they created because the slow production rate necessitated re-reading the same work several times. As a result he prefers monthly serialization to the weekly format for his own works. Miyazaki has identified Soji Yamakawa's Shōnen ōja as one of the influential stories he read. Takekuma has noted that several of Miyazaki's works, in both manga and anime, have their roots in Tetsuji Fukushima's The evil Lord of the Desert. A slightly later influence Miyazaki has cited is the work of Sanpei Shirato.[11]

A number of Western authors have influenced Miyazaki's work, including Ursula K. Le Guin, Lewis Carroll, Edward Blishen and Diana Wynne Jones. Miyazaki confided to Le Guin that Earthsea had been a great influence on all his works, and that he kept her books at his bedside.[67] Miyazaki and French writer and illustrator Jean Giraud (a.k.a. Moebius) have influenced each other and had become friends as a result of their mutual admiration. Monnaie de Paris held an exhibition of their work titled Miyazaki et Moebius: Deux Artistes Dont Les Dessins Prennent Vie (Two Artists’s Drawings Taking on a Life of Their Own) from December 2004 to April 2005. Both artists attended the opening of the exhibition.[50][68] Moebius named his daughter Nausicaa after Miyazaki's heroine.[69] Miyazaki has been deeply influenced by another French writer, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. He illustrated the Japanese covers of Saint-Exupéry's Night Flight (Vol de nuit) and Wind, Sand and Stars (Terre des Hommes), and wrote an afterword for Wind, Sand and Stars.

In an interview broadcast on BBC Choice on 2002-06-10, Miyazaki cited the British authors Eleanor Farjeon, Rosemary Sutcliff, and Philippa Pearce as influences. The filmmaker has also publicly expressed fondness for Roald Dahl's stories about pilots and airplanes; the image in Porco Rosso of a cloud of dead pilots was inspired by Dahl's They Shall Not Grow Old. As in Miyazaki's films, these authors create self-contained worlds in which allegory is often used, and characters have complex, and often ambiguous, motivations. Other Miyazaki works, such as My Neighbor Totoro, Princess Mononoke, and Spirited Away, incorporate elements of Japanese history and mythology.

Miyazaki has said he was inspired to become an animator by The Tale of the White Serpent, considered the first modern anime, in 1958. He has also said that The Snow Queen, a Soviet animated film, was one of his earliest inspirations, and that it motivated him to stay in animation production.[70] We can see its influence on ' The Little Norse Prince'. The villain, 'Forest King' is like 'Snow Queen',design wise and character wise.[71] Yuriy Norshteyn, a Russian animator, is Miyazaki's friend and praised by him as "a great artist."[72] Norshteyn's Hedgehog in the Fog is cited as one of Miyazaki's favourite animated films.[70] Miyazaki has long been a fan of the Aardman Studios animation. In May 2006, David Sproxton and Peter Lord, founders of Aardman Studios, visited the Ghibli Museum exhibit dedicated to their works, where they also met Miyazaki.[73]

Pete Docter, director of the popular films Up and Monsters, Inc. as well as a co-creator of other Pixar works, has praised Miyazaki and described him as an influence.[74] Glen Keane, the animator for successful Disney films such as The Little Mermaid, The Rescuers Down Under, Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, and Tangled, has also credited Miyazaki as a "huge influence" on his work and on Disney in general during the past two decades.[75] Bryan Konietzko and Michael Dante DiMartino have cited Miyazaki's work as having the biggest influence on the universe and style of Avatar: The Last Airbender.[76]

Miyazaki has also been cited as an influence on various role-playing video games. The creator of Square's Final Fantasy series, Hironobu Sakaguchi, cited Miyazaki as inspiration for elements such as the airships and chocobos featured in the series.[77] The post-apocalyptic setting of SNK's Crystalis was inspired by Miyazaki's Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind, and Crystalis in turn influenced Square's Secret of Mana.[78]

Miyazaki has also been influenced by Akira Kurosawa. Kurosawa was successful in bringing the Western World's attention to Japanese cinematography with his 1951 film Rashomon, Seven Samurai in 1954, and Yojimbo in 1960. Another influence was Osamu Tezuka, a pioneer in new manga styles and techniques. Miyazaki said of Princess Mononoke, 'I wish Osamu Tezuka could have watched it'. Tezuka and Miyazaki had a somewhat uneasy relationship. Miyazaki acknowledges his influence, like the influence of an older brother or predecessor, but the influence may not have been seen as an entirely beneficial one. As noted by Helen McCarthy, Miyazaki wrote an essay, after Tezuka's passing in 1989, in which he reflected on the influence Tezuka had on his own career in particular and the development of Anime in Japan in general. Miyazaki acknowledges that Tezuka was among the creative artists who inspired him to become a manga author but he writes that he initially reacted indignantly and that he felt humiliated when it was pointed out to him that his style as a draughtsman resembled that of Tezuka. Once he realised that the observation about the resemblance was accurate, he destroyed his sketches and decided to return to the study of basic drawing skills in order to start over. He notes that he does not share the advice that young manga artists should imitate the work of their predecessors when starting out. In his essay he also writes that he became increasingly critical of Tezuka's role in the development of anime in Japan and he criticised, particularly other animators, for the reverential treatment, to the point of worship, given Tezuka. In Miyazaki's world view, influence is supposed to drive the medium forward and although Miyazaki markets his own name brand well, he is nevertheless also critical of the godlike status bestowed on him. He has indicated that he sees such praise as stifling in stead of encouraging the exploration of creativity and the development of a personal style in younger artists.[12]

Recurring collaborators

Among the actors that have collaborated with Miyazaki on his films, other filmmakers, writers, and producers have also collaborated with Miyazaki in multiple instances. This includes Isao Takahata, Toshio Suzuki, Hiromasa Yonebayashi, Gorō Miyazaki, Takeshi Seyama, Azumi Inoue, Youmi Kimura, Yoshifumi Kondō, Hiroyuki Morita, Kazuo Oga and Hideaki Anno. Also, music composer Joe Hisaishi has been responsible for every film score for Miyazaki's films since Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind.

Actor The Castle of Cagliostro
Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind
Castle in the Sky
My Neighbor Totoro
Kiki's Delivery Service
Porco Rosso
Princess Mononoke
Spirited Away
Howl's Moving Castle
The Wind Rises
Tatsuya Gashūin NoN NoN
Rumi Hiiragi NoN NoN
Tsunehiko Kamijō NoN NoN NoN
Ryūnosuke Kamiki NoN NoN
Haruko Katō NoN NoN
Yōji Matsuda NoN NoN
Akihiro Miwa NoN NoN
Kōhei Miyauchi NoN NoN
Ichirō Nagai NoN NoN NoN
Masahiko Nishimura NoN NoN
Tomomichi Nishimura NoN NoN
Gorō Naya NoN NoN
Yō Ōizumi NoN NoN
Akio Ōtsuka NoN NoN NoN
Shirō Saitō NoN NoN NoN
Chika Sakamoto NoN NoN NoN
Hiroko Seki NoN NoN
Sumi Shimamoto NoN NoN NoN NoN
Tarako NoN NoN NoN

Early works (animation)

Manga works

The following list contains Hayao Miyazaki's works, both major and minor, since his debut as manga artist:

Work Years Summary
Nagagutsu wo haita neko (Puss in Boots) 1969 A manga version for the serialization in a newspaper of a feature film by Toei Doga (Toei Animation Studio), for which Miyazaki worked as a key animator. Based on Charles Perrault's book. Pero, the dandy cat, helps a boy defeat an Ogre and win the heart of a princess.
Sabaku no tami (People of the Desert) 1969-1970 Sabaku no tami is a manga which Miyazaki wrote for a newspaper targeted for children. It deals with the devastation of war, betrayal, and the ugliness of the human nature under desperate situations.
Doubutsu takarajima (Animal Treasure Island) 1972 A manga version for the serialization in a newspaper of a feature film by Toei Doga (Toei Animation Studio), for which Miyazaki worked as a key animator. It's a fun, slapstick adventure story based on Stevenson's Treasure Island.
Kaze no tani no Naushika (Nausicaä of the Valley of Wind) 1982-1994 Miyazaki's lifework. A complicated and thought-provoking manga (or "graphic novel") about a princess who struggles to live in the world filled with ecological disasters, war, hatred and anger. By the time he finished he had tackled some of the most difficult themes in literature: the conflicts between Nature and Man, war and peace, hope and despair, and the meaning of life and death.
Imouto he (To my sister) 1982 A six page graphic poem about a dream a boy has in which he and his sick twin sister fly and travel around the world, and he can bring happiness to her.
Shuna no Tabi (The Journey of Shuna) 1983 An all-watercolor 147 page manga considered by some as a Nausicaä prototype. It's about a prince of a very poor country that journeys in search of the Golden Wheat to save his people from starving.
Hikoutei jidai (The age of the flying boat) 1990 A 15 page all watercolor manga, which the animated film Porco Rosso is based on. It was serialized in Model Graphix, a monthly magazine about scale models, as a part of Miyazaki's "Zassou nouto" series.
Zassou nouto (Daydream data notes) 1992 This is a series of manga (or rather, "graphic essays") which Miyazaki has (very) sporadically been writing in a Japanese scale model magazine, Model Graphix (1984-1992). They are totally independent manga stories, mecha ideas, or movie ideas about tanks, planes, or battle ships from the era before World War II - the "favorites" of Miyazaki.
Hansu no kikan (The Return of Hans) 1994 An all-watercolor manga based on the fictional adventures of Hans, a German chief tank mechanic, at the end of World War II. It was serialized in Model Graphix, a monthly magazine about scale models, as a part of Miyazaki's "Zassou nouto" series.
Kuuchuu de oshokuji (Dining in the air) 1994 An all-watercolor short manga about the history of in-flight meals.
Doromamire no tora (Tigers covered with mud) 1998-1999 An all-watercolor manga based on the memoirs of Otto Carius, a German tank commander. It was serialized in Model Graphix, under a new series name "Mousou nouto".
A Trip to Tynemouth 2006 An adapted manga version of a translated collection of three of the young adult short stories written by Robert Westall.
Kaze Tachinu (風立ちぬ The Wind Rises) 2009 The story of Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter designer Jiro Horikoshi.
(untitled samurai manga) ? A manga series about samurai in Japan’s Warring States era.


Year Title Director Producer Writer Notes
1979 The Castle of Cagliostro Yes Yes
1984 Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind Yes Yes
1986 Castle in the Sky Yes Yes
1988 My Neighbor Totoro Yes Yes
1989 Kiki's Delivery Service Yes Yes Yes
1991 Only Yesterday Yes
1992 Porco Rosso Yes Yes
1994 Pom Poko Yes
1995 Whisper of the Heart Yes Yes
On Your Mark Yes Music video
1997 Princess Mononoke Yes Yes
2001 Spirited Away Yes Yes
Whale Hunt Yes Yes Short film
2002 Koro's Big Day Out Yes Yes Short film
Mei and the Kittenbus Yes Yes Short film
Imaginary Flying Machines Yes Yes Short film
The Cat Returns Yes
2004 Howl's Moving Castle Yes Yes
2006 Monmon the Water Spider Yes Yes Yes Short film
House-hunting Yes Yes Yes Short film
The Day I Harvested a Planet Yes Yes Short film
2008 Ponyo Yes Yes
2010 Mr. Dough and the Egg Princess Yes Yes Short film
The Secret World of Arrietty Yes Yes
2011 From Up on Poppy Hill Yes Yes
2013 The Wind Rises Yes Yes



Year Title Award Category Result
1980 The Castle of Cagliostro Mainichi Film Award Ofuji Noburo Award Won
1985 Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind Fantafestival Best Short Film Won
Kinema Junpo Awards Readers' Choice Award – Best Film Won
Mainichi Film Award Ofuji Noburo Award Won
1987 Castle in the Sky Mainichi Film Award Ofuji Noburo Award Won
1989 My Neighbor Totoro Kinema Junpo Awards Kinema Junpo Award – Best Film Won
Readers' Choice Award – Best Japanese Film Won
Mainichi Film Award Best Film Won
Ofuji Noburo Award Won
Blue Ribbon Awards Special Award Won
1990 Kiki's Delivery Service Mainichi Film Award Best Animated Film Won
Kinema Junpo Awards Readers' Choice Award – Best Japanese Film Director Won
1993 Porco Rosso Mainichi Film Award Best Animated Film Won
1997 Princess Mononoke Hochi Film Awards Special Award Won
The Association of Movie Viewing Groups Best Japanese Movie Won
Nikkan Sports Film Awards Best Director Won
Takasaki Film Festival Best Director Won
The Agency for Cultural Affairs Excellent Movie Award Won
Japan Media Arts Festival Grand Prize Won
Asahi Best Ten Film Festival Best Japanese Movie Won
Readers' Choice Award Won
Nihon Keizai Shimbun Award for Excellency Won
Nikkei Awards for Excellent Products and Service Won
Theater Division Award Asahi Digital Entertainment Award Won
MMCA Special Award Multimedia Grand Prix 1997 Won
Osaka Film Festival Special Award Won
The Movie's Day Special Achievement Award Won
Fumiko Yamaji Award Cultural Award Won
1998 Blue Ribbon Awards Special Awards Won
Japanese Academy Awards Picture of the Year Won
Kinema Junpo Awards Readers' Choice Award – Best Film Won
Mainichi Film Award Best Animated Film Won
Best Film Won
Readers' Choice Award – Best Film Won
2000 Annie Awards Outstanding Individual Achievement for Directing in an Animated Feature Production Nominated
2001 Nebula Award Best Script Nominated
2002 Whale Hunt Mainichi Film Award Ofuji Noburo Award Won
Spirited Away Berlin International Film Festival Golden Berlin Bear Won
Blue Ribbon Award Best Film Won
Nikkan Sports Film Award Best Film Won
New York Film Critics Circle Award Best Animated Film Won
Boston Society of Film Critics Awards Special Commendation – For artistic contribution to the field of animation Won
Cambridge Film Festival Audience Award – Best Film Won
National Board of Review of Motion Pictures Best Animated Feature Won
Cinekid Festival Cinekid Film Award Won
Durban International Film Festival Best Film Won
European Film Awards Screen International Award Nominated
Kinema Junpo Awards Readers' Choice Award – Best Film Won
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards LAFCA Award Won
Mainichi Film Award Best Animated Film Won
Best Director Won
Best Film Won
Readers' Choice Award – Best Film Won
San Francisco International Film Festival Audience Award – Best Narrative Feature Won
Sitges Film Festival Special Mention Won
Best Film Nominated
Tokyo Anime Award Grand Prix Won
Best Director Won
Japanese Academy Award Best Film Won
Hong Kong Film Award Best Asian Film Won
2003 Academy Award Best Animated Feature Won
Online Film Critics Society Award Best Animated Feature Won
Best Foreign Language Film Nominated
British Independent Film Awards Best Foreign Independent Film Nominated
Saturn Award Best Writing Nominated
Film Critics Circle of Australia Best Foreign-Language Film Won
Chicago Film Critics Association Best Foreign Language Film Nominated
Satellite Award Best Motion Picture, Animated or Mixed Media Won
Phoenix Film Critics Society Award Best Animated Film Won
Overlooked Film of the Year Nominated
International Horror Guild Award Best Movie Nominated
Florida Film Critics Circle Best Animation Won
Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association Award Best Animated Film Won
Amsterdam Fantastic Film Festival Silver Scream Award Won
Annie Award Outstanding Directing in an Animated Feature Production Won
Outstanding Writing in an Animated Feature Production Won
Cambridge Film Festival Audience Award – Best Film Won
Cinema Writers Circle Awards, Spain Best Foreign Film Won
César Award Best Foreign Film Nominated
Hugo Award Best Dramatic Presentation – Long Form Nominated
Broadcast Film Critics Association Best Animated Feature Won
2004 Argentinean Film Critics Association Awards Silver Condor – Best Foreign Film Nominated
BAFTA Award Best Film not in the English Language Nominated
London Critics Circle Film Awards Foreign Language Film of the Year Nominated
Nebula Award Best Script Nominated
Howl's Moving Castle Sitges Film Festival Audience Award – Best Feature Film Won
Best Film Nominated
Venice Film Festival Golden Lion Nominated
2005 Hollywood Film Festival Hollywood Film Award – Animation of the Year Won
Mainichi Film Award Readers' Choice Award – Best Film Won
Tokyo Anime Award Animation of the Year Won
Satellite Award Outstanding Motion Picture, Animated or Mixed Media Nominated
San Diego Film Critics Society Award Best Animated Film Won
New York Film Critics Circle Awards Best Animated Film Won
2006 Academy Award Best Animated Feature Nominated
Annie Award Best Directing in an Animated Feature Production Nominated
Best Writing in an Animated Feature Production Nominated
Broadcast Film Critics Association Awards Best Animated Feature Nominated
Online Film Critics Society Award Best Animated Feature Nominated
Saturn Award Best Animated Film Nominated
MTV Movie Awards Russia Best Cartoon Nominated
Nastro d'Argento Silver Ribbon – Best Foreign Director Nominated
Hong Kong Film Awards Best Asian Film Nominated
2007 Nebula Award Best Script Won
2008 Ponyo Venice Film Festival Future Film Festival Digital Award – Special Mention Won
Mimmo Rotella Foundation Award Won
Golden Lion Nominated
2009 Asian Film Award Best Director Nominated
Japanese Academy Award Best Animation Film Won
Chicago Film Critics Association Awards Best Animated Feature Nominated
Hong Kong Film Awards Best Asian Film Nominated
Online Film Critics Society Award Best Animated Feature Nominated
Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association Best Animated Film Nominated
Tokyo Anime Award Best Director Won
Best Original Story Won
Animation of the Year Won
2010 Annie Award Directing in a Feature Production Nominated
2013 From Up on Poppy Hill Annie Award Writing in an Animated Feature Production Nominated
The Wind Rises Academy Awards Best Animated Feature Nominated[79]
Alliance of Women Film Journalists Best Animated Feature Won
Annie Awards Best Animated Feature Nominated
Annie Awards Character Animation in a Feature Production (for Kitaro Kosaka) Nominated
Annie Awards Writing in an Animated Feature Production Won
Asia Pacific Screen Awards Best Animated Feature Film Nominated
Boston Online Film Critics Association Best Animated Film
Tied with Frozen
Boston Society of Film Critics Best Animated Film Won
Chicago Film Critics Association Best Foreign - Language Film Nominated
Chicago Film Critics Association Best Animated Feature Won
Critics' Choice Movie Award Best Animated Feature Nominated
Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Best Foreign Language Film Nominated
Golden Globe Awards Best Foreign Language Film Nominated
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Best Animation 2nd place
Mill Valley Film Festival Audience Favorite — Animation Won
National Board of Review Best Animated Film Won
New York Film Critics Circle Best Animated Film Won
New York Film Critics Online Best Animated Feature Won
New York Film Festival Grand Marnier Fellowship Award for Best Film Nominated
Online Film Critics Society Best Picture Nominated
Online Film Critics Society Best Director Nominated
Online Film Critics Society Best Animated Feature Won
Online Film Critics Society Best Film Not in the English Language Nominated
Online Film Critics Society Best Adapted Screenplay Nominated
Phoenix Film Critics Society Best Animated Film Nominated
San Diego Film Critics Society Best Animated Film Won
San Francisco Film Critics Circle Best Animated Feature Nominated
Satellite Awards Best Motion Picture, Animated or Mixed Media Won
San Sebastián International Film Festival Audience Award Nominated
St. Louis Gateway Film Critics Association Best Animated Feature 2nd place
Toronto International Film Festival People's Choice Award for Best Drama Feature Film Nominated
Venice Film Festival Golden Lion Nominated
Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association Best Animated Feature Nominated



  1. ^ McCarthy notes Miyzaki's getting evacuated at age three and starting school as an evacuee in 1947. In McCarthy (1999), page 26.[7] The biography states, "Between 1944 and 1946".[6] In order to preserve accuracy of the ambiguous timeline, no synthesis will be made to state when this occurred.
  2. ^ McCarthy (1999), page 26.[9]
  3. ^ Miyazaki, I parted ways with Osamu Tezuka when I saw the "Hand of God" in him., in Starting Point (2009), page 193ff.[10] McCarthy (1999), page 28.[7] Comic Box (1982), page 80.[11]
  4. ^ McCarthy (1999), page 29.[7]
  5. ^ McCarthy (1999), page 30.[7]
  6. ^ McCarthy (1999), page 39.[7]
  7. ^ McCarthy (1999), pages 45.[7]
  8. ^ McCarthy (1999), page 199-203.[7]
  9. ^ McCarthy (1999), pp. 27 and p.219.[7] Comic Box (1982), pp. 80 and pp. 111.[11] July 1983 issue of Animage, page 172.[24] Takekuma, Kentaro, Lecture series at Kyoto Seika University.[25] Re-release announcement in Asahi Shinbun for Fukushima's graphic novel.[26]
  10. ^ McCarthy (1999), pages 79, 89.[7]
  11. ^ Takekuma, Kentaro Lectures.(2008).[25] McCarthy (1999), page 27.[7] Kaku(2012).[26]
  12. ^ Tasker (2011), page 292ff.[15] Miyazaki, I parted ways with Osamu Tezuka when I saw the "Hand of God" in him., in Starting Point (2009), page 193ff.[10] McCarthy (1999), page 28.[7] Takekuma, Kentaro Lectures.(2008)[25]


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Further reading

External links

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Aron Warner
for Shrek
Academy Award for Best Animated Feature
for Spirited Away
Succeeded by
Andrew Stanton
for Finding Nemo
Preceded by
Patrice Chéreau
for Intimacy
Golden Bear
for Spirited Away
Succeeded by
Michael Winterbottom
for In This World
Preceded by
Stanley Donen, Manoel de Oliveira
Career Golden Lion
Succeeded by
David Lynch
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