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International Churches of Christ

International Churches of Christ
An International Church of Christ worship service
Classification Christian, Restoration Movement, Christian fundamentalism
Orientation New Testament, Evangelicalism[1][2]
Polity Congregationalism
Associations HOPE Worldwide,[3] IPI Books [4]
Region Global (155 nations)[5][6]
Founder Thomas McKean [7]
Branched from Churches of Christ
Separations International Christian Churches
Congregations 657[6]
Members 2008: 88,000, 2014: 105,000 [5][6]
Official website International Churches of Christ

The International Churches of Christ, is a body of co-operating[8] religiously conservative, and racially integrated[6] Christian congregations. Beginning with 30 members in 1979 they grew to 19,172 members within the first 10 years. Currently they are numbered at more than 105,000.[9] A formal break was made from the mainline Churches of Christ in 1993 with the organization of the International Churches of Christ.[10]:418 The ICOC believes that the whole Bible is the inspired Word of God and that each person is saved by the grace of God, if and when they place their faith in and become a disciple of Jesus Christ, repent and are baptized.[11]

It is a family or network of over 650 churches spread across some 155 nations, they consider themselves non-denominational.[6][12] The network structure is intended to avoid two extremes: "overly centralized authority" on the one side and "disconnected autonomy" on the other side.[6] The organization of the ICOC has been described as based on cooperation between congregations.[13] The largest congregation, the Los Angeles Church of Christ, has over 6000 members.[5] The largest church service was held in 2012 at the AT&T stadium in San Antonio, Texas, during a World Discipleship Summit, with 17,800 in attendance.[14][15]

In 2000, it was described as "[a] fast-growing Christian organization known for aggressive proselytizing to [US] college students" and as "one of the most controversial religious groups on campus".[16][17]


  • History 1
    • Origins in the Stone-Campbell Movement 1.1
    • From Gainesville to Boston: 1970s–1980s 1.2
    • The ICoC: 1990s 1.3
    • The ICoC: 2000s 1.4
    • The ICOC: 2020 Plans 1.5
  • Church governance 2
    • One church 2.1
    • Ministry Training Academy 2.2
    • HOPE worldwide 2.3
    • ICOC and mainstream Churches of Christ relations 2.4
  • Church beliefs and practices 3
    • Beliefs 3.1
    • Practices 3.2
      • Sunday worship 3.2.1
      • One Year Challenge 3.2.2
      • Bible talks 3.2.3
      • Discipling 3.2.4
  • The ICOC on US college campuses 4
  • Public Perception 5
  • Affiliated organizations 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9


Origins in the Stone-Campbell Movement

The ICoC has its roots in a movement that reaches back to the period of the Second Great Awakening (1790–1870) of early nineteenth-century America. Barton W. Stone and Alexander Campbell are credited with what is today known as the Stone-Campbell or Restoration Movement. There are a number of branches of the Restoration movement and the ICoC was formed from within the Churches of Christ.[18] Specifically, it was born from a "discipling" movement that arose among the mainline Churches of Christ during the 1970s.[10] This discipling movement developed in the campus ministry of Chuck Lucas.[10]

Crossroads Church of Christ in 1967

In 1967, Chuck Lucas was minister of the 14th Street Church of Christ in Gainesville, Florida (later renamed the Crossroads Church of Christ). That year he started a new project known as Campus Advance (based on principles borrowed from the Campus Crusade and the Shepherding Movement). Centered on the University of Florida, the program called for a strong evangelical outreach and an intimate religious atmosphere in the form of soul talks and prayer partners. Soul talks were held in student residences and involved prayer and sharing overseen by a leader who delegated authority over group members. Prayer partners referred to the practice of pairing a new Christian with an older guide for personal assistance and direction. Both procedures led to "in-depth involvement of each member in one another's lives".[19]

The ministry grew as younger members appreciated many of the new emphases on commitment and models for communal activity. This activity became identified by many with the forces of radical change in the larger American society that characterized the late sixties and seventies. The campus ministry in Gainesville thrived and sustained strong support from the elders of the local congregation in the 'Crossroads Church of Christ'. By 1971, as many as a hundred people a year were joining the church. Most notable was the development of a training program for potential campus ministers. By the mid-seventies, a number of young men and women had been trained to replicate the philosophy and methods of the Crossroads Church in other places.[20]

From Gainesville to Boston: 1970s–1980s

Among the early converts at Gainesville was a student named Kip McKean who had been personally mentored by Chuck Lucas. Thomas 'Kip' McKean, born in Indianapolis, Indiana,[21] completed a degree while training at Crossroads and afterward served as campus minister at several mainline Churches of Christ locations. By 1979 his ministry grew from a few individuals to over three hundred making it the fastest growing Church of Christ campus ministry in America.[18] McKean then moved to Massachusetts, where he took over the leadership of the Lexington Church of Christ (soon to be called the Boston Church of Christ). Building on Lucas' initial strategies, McKean only agreed to lead the church in Lexington as long as every member agreed to be 'totally committed'. The church grew from 30 members to 3,000 in just over 10 years in what became known as the 'Boston Movement'.[18]

While still a Church of Christ congregation, they differentiated themselves through high levels of commitment, accountability, mentorship and a numerical focus on conversions. Meanwhile, the epicenter of the new philosophy of ministry training and evangelism began to shift from Florida to Massachusetts. Moreover, the relationship between The Boston Church of Christ and larger CoC became more and more strained. During this period, Boston Movement leaders had begun to 'reconstruct' existing congregations. This began to cause a tension with the larger Church of Christ leadership that would eventually lead to a complete split. Parallel to this, the Boston Church of Christ began to plant new congregations at unprecedented speed for the Church of Christ at the time. The Boston congregation sent church plantings to Chicago and London in 1982, New York shortly thereafter, and Johannesburg in June 1986.[18][22]

In 1985 a Church of Christ minister and professor, Dr. Flavil Yeakley, administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator test to the Boston Church of Christ (BCC), the founding church of the ICOC. Yeakley passed out three different MBTI tests, which asked members to perceive their past, current, and five-year in the future personality types.[23][24][25] While over 900 members were tested, 835 individuals completed all three forms. A majority of those respondents changed their perceived or imagined personality type scores on the three different tests in convergence with a single type.[23][24] After completing the study, Yeakley observed that "The data in this study of the Boston Church of Christ does not prove that any certain individual has actually changed his or her personality in an unhealthy way. The data, however, does prove that there is a group dynamic operating in that congregation that influences its members to change their personalities to conform to the group norm".[26]

By the end of 1988 the churches in the Boston Movement were for all practical purposes a distinct fellowship, initiating a fifteen-year period during which there would be little contact between the CoC and the Boston Movement. By 1988, McKean was regarded as the leader of the movement.[22] It was at this time that the Boston church initiated its program of outreach to the poor called HopeWorldwide.[3] Also 1988 McKean, finding that running the organization single-handedly had become unwieldy, selected a handful of men that he and Elena had personally trained and named them World Sector Leaders.[27] In 1989 mission teams were officially sent out to Tokyo, Honolulu, Washington, DC, Manila, Miami, Seattle, Bangkok and Los Angeles. That year, McKean and his family moved to Los Angeles to lead the new church planted some months earlier. Within a few years Los Angeles, not Boston, was the fulcrum of the movement.[22]

The ICoC: 1990s

The Evangelization Proclamation, issued in 1994, pledged that the ICOC would establish a church in every major country within six years.

In 1990 the Crossroads Church of Christ broke with the movement and, through a letter written to [10]:419 This new designation formalized a division that was already in existence between those involved with the Crossroads/Boston Movement and "mainline" Churches of Christ.[10]:418[29] Growth in the ICOC was not without criticism.[30] Other names that have been used for this movement include the "Crossroads movement," "Multiplying Ministries," and the "Discipling Movement".[19] Since each city had a single church, its membership might be large and geographically disperse; if so, it was divided into regions and then sectors of perhaps a few small suburban communities. This governing system attracted criticism as overly-authoritarian,[31] although the ICOC denied this charge. "It's not a dictatorship," said Al Baird, former ICOC spokesperson; "It's a theocracy, with God on top."[32]

Growth continued globally and in 1996 the independent organisation "Church Growth Today" named the Los Angeles ICoC as the fastest growing Church in North America for the second year running and another eight ICOC churches were in the top 100.[18] By 1999, the Los Angeles church reached a Sunday attendance of 14,000.[22] By 2001, the ICOC was an independent worldwide movement that had grown from a small congregation to 125,000 members and had planted a church in nearly every country of the world in a period of twenty years.[18]

The ICoC: 2000s

Once the fastest-growing Christian movement in the United States, membership growth slowed during the later half of the 1990s.[33] In 2000, the ICOC announced the completion of its six-year initiative to establish a church in every country with a population over 100,000.[27][34] In spite of this, numerical growth began to slow. Beginning in the late 1990s, problems arose as McKean's moral authority as the leader of the movement came into question.[18] Expectations for continued numerical growth and the pressure to sacrifice financially to support missionary efforts took its toll. Added to this was the loss of local leaders to new planting projects. In some areas, decreases in membership began to occur.[22] At the same time, realisation was growing that the accumulated costs of his leadership style and associated advantages were outweighing the benefits. In 2001, McKean's leadership sins were affecting his family, with all of his children disassociating themselves from the church, and he was asked by a group of long-standing elders in the ICoC to take a sabbatical from overall leadership of the ICoC. On 12 November 2001, McKean, who had led the International Churches of Christ, issued a statement that he was going to take a sabbatical from his role of leadership in the church:

Nearly a year later, in November 2002 he resigned from the office and personally apologised citing arrogance, anger and an over-focus on numerical goals as the source of his decision.[18] Referring to this event, McKean said:

At this time, the International Churches of Christ administration, under the leadership of Andy Fleming (a former missionary to Scandinavia and the Soviet Union), began to formulate a plan for a massive reduction in the overhead of the worldwide organization. The goal of this administrative plan was to refocus the resources of the local congregations on building up their own ministries as well as guaranteeing continued goodwill in future missions contributions. By the end of 2002, the overhead had been reduced by 67%. The World Sector Leaders also announced the disintegration of their leadership group with the suggestion that a new representative leadership group including evangelists, elders and teachers, be formed with an initial meeting in May 2003.

The period following McKean's departure included a number of changes in the ICoC. Some changes were initiated from the leaders themselves and others brought through members.[36] Most notable was Henry Kriete, a leader in the London ICoC, who circulated an open letter detailing his feelings about theological exclusivism and authority in the ICoC. This letter had an impact on the ICoC for the decade after McKean's resignation.[37]

Critics of the ICOC claim that Kip McKean's resignation sparked numerous problems.[38] One such critic, [41] According to the paper, "the ICOC has attempted to address the following concerns: a top down hierarchy, discipling techniques, and sectarianism".[42] In the years following McKean's resignation, the central leadership was replaced with "the co-operation agreement" with over 90% of the churches affirming to this new system of global co-ordination.[43]

Over time, McKean attempted to re-assert his leadership over the ICOC, yet was rebuffed. The Elders, Evangelists and Teachers wrote a letter to McKean expressing concern that there had been "no repentance" from his publicly acknowledged leadership sins.[44] McKean then began to criticize some of the changes that were being made.[45] After attempting to divide the ICOC he was disfellowshipped in 2006[45][46] and founded a church that he called the International Christian Church.[45]

The Johannesburg Church of Christ Choir

The ICOC: 2020 Plans

In 2010 the Evangelists Service Team formulated a "2020 vision plan", that all the thirty or so regional families of churches have a plan to evangelize their geographic area of the world. The plan encompasses the need to strengthen existing small churches and plant new churches.[47]

They plan to build and strengthen those churches through a "best-practices" approach to ministry: oversee and support those churches through strong regional relationships and provide additional training for their ministers and congregations through the newly formed "Ministry Training Academy" and "Disciple Bible Academy" being rolled out across the world, and provide global co-ordination and co-operation through "Service Teams" that specialize in "Campus Ministry", "Youth & Family Ministry" and other specialized ministries.[48]

Church governance

The 2000-member church in Jakarta, Indonesia
The Church in Singapore, which numbers over 1000 congregants

The International churches of Christ are a family of 650 churches in 155 nations around the world. The 650 churches form 30 regional families of churches that oversee mission work in their respective geographic areas of influence. Each regional family of churches sends Evangelists, Elders and Teachers to an annual leadership conference, where delegates meet to pray, plan and co-operate world evangelism.[49][50] Mike Taliaferro, from San Antonio Texas, says "The co-operation plan is a far better way of co-ordinating and unifying a church family of the size and global nature of the ICOC. No longer can one man make sweeping decisions that affect all the churches, considering that many of those churches he may never have visited. Building unity and consensus through prayer and discussion takes time but is worth it. The spiritual fruit of the Delegates Conference in Budapest is testimony to the success of this much less authoritarian approach to that which we had in the past."[51] "Service Teams" provide global leadership and oversight. The Service Teams consists of an Elders, Evangelists, Teachers, Youth & Family, Campus, Singles, Communications & Administration, and HOPEww & Benevolence teams.[49]

One church

The ICOC holds that the Bible teaches the existence of a single universal church. One implication of this doctrine is that, while Christians may separate themselves into different, disunified churches (as opposed to just geographically separated congregations), it is not actually biblically right to do so, and so such separations are not likely to take place between groups of Christians who are obedient to the Bible. While no-one claims to know who exactly is part of "the universal church" and who is not, the ICOC believes that anyone who follows the plan of salvation as laid out in the scriptures is added by God to his "One Universal Church".[11][52]

This is consistent with their historical roots in the Churches of Christ, which believe that Christ established only one church, and that the use of denominational creeds serves to foster division among Christians.[53]:23,24[54][55] This belief dates to the beginning of the Restoration Movement; Thomas Campbell expressed an ideal of unity in his Declaration and address: "The church of Jesus Christ on earth is essentially, intentionally, and constitutionally one."[56]:688

The ICOC sees God at work in many congregations around the world who are not necessarily affiliated with the ICOC. Christian churches, Churches of Christ and other biblically sound churches have faithful Christians in them.[11][52]

Ministry Training Academy

The current education and ministerial training program in the ICOC is the Ministry Training Academy (MTA). The MTA consists of twelve core courses that are divided into three areas of study: biblical knowledge, spiritual development, and ministry leadership. Each course requires at least 12 hours of classroom study in addition to course work. An MTA student who completes the twelve core classes receives a certificate of completion.[57]

HOPE worldwide

The ICOC directly administers or partners with over a dozen organizations. Some function as appendages of the church; others are entirely unrelated in their mission and activities. Of these, the largest and most well-known is HOPE worldwide,[58] a charitable foundation started as the benevolent arm of the ICOC, which serves as the primary beneficiary of the church's charitable donations for the poor.[3] Begun in 1991 with three projects in three countries and a budget of $600,000, as of 2012, HOPEww has grown to operate in 80 countries, serving 2 500 000 needy people each year, with an annual budget of $40 000 000.[59]

  • In Africa, their projects serve 148,000 orphans in eight different countries.
  • In North America, there are 120 different chapters of HOPEww, which mobilised 1300 volunteers to serve victims of Hurricane Sandy.
  • In Central America, 53 000 paediatric exams and 58 000 adult medical exams have been conducted with 23 000 prescription written.
  • In Cambodia, HOPEww runs and staffs two free hospitals.[59][60]
  • In Bolivia, Hospital Arco Iris provides $1.4 million in free medical care.[61]

According to Charity Navigator, America's largest independent charity evaluator,[62] they have assigned HOPE Worldwide:

  • An "Accountability & Transparency" rating of 100
  • An "Overall" rating of 4 out of 4 stars, with the Overall score of 90.53 out of 100.


ICOC and mainstream Churches of Christ relations

With the resignation of McKean, some efforts are being made at reconciliation between the International Churches of Christ and the mainstream Churches of Christ. In March 2004, Abilene Christian University held the "Faithful Conversations" dialog between members of the Churches of Christ and International Churches of Christ. Those involved were able to apologize and initiate an environment conducive to building bridges. A few leaders of the Churches of Christ apologized for use of the word "cult" in reference to the International Churches of Christ. The International Churches of Christ leaders apologized for alienating the Churches of Christ and implying they were not Christians. Despite improvements in relations, there are still fundamental differences within the fellowship. Early 2005 saw a second set of dialogs with greater promise for both sides helping one another. Harding University is contemplating a distance learning program geared toward those ministers who were trained in the International Churches of Christ.[64] A video chronicling the "First forty years of the ICOC" details these developments.[65]

Church beliefs and practices


The ICOC regards the Bible to be the inspired Word of God. Through holding that their doctrine is based on the Bible alone, and not on creeds and traditions, they claim the distinction of being "non-denominational". Members of the International Churches of Christ generally emphasize their intent to simply be part of the original church established by Jesus Christ in his death, burial, and resurrection, which became evident on the Day of Pentecost as described in Acts 2. They believe that anyone who follows the plan of salvation as laid out in the scriptures is saved by the grace of God.[11][66][67][68]

Like the Mainline Churches of Christ, the ICOC recognizes the Bible as the sole source of authority for the church and believes that the current denominational divisions are inconsistent with Christ's intent. Christians ought to be united[69] However, there are still contrasting approaches to biblical interpretation. The Churches of Christ permit only those practices found in accounts of New Testament worship. They could find no New Testament documentation of the use of instrumental music in worship. The ICOC like the Christian Church, by contrast, consider permissible practices that the New Testament does not expressly forbid.[70]

Pepperdine University published a document in 2010 highlighting the core beliefs of the ICOC:

The ICOC teaches that that "Christians are saved by the grace of God, through faith in Christ, at baptism."[6] Scriptures used to support this view include Ephesians 2:10, Romans 3:22, Acts 2:38 and Matthew 28:18–20.[6] They claim that "faith alone" is not sufficient, supported by James 2:14–26, unless an individual by faith obeys God in baptism, believing that baptism is necessary for the forgiveness of sins. The ICOC maintains that anyone, anywhere who follows God's plan of salvation as found in the scriptures is saved.[6]

The ICOC teaches on the basis of James 2:20–26 that the "Sinner's Prayer" is not biblical.[6] Steven Francis Staten argues that the sinner's prayer represents "a belief system and a salvation practice that no one had ever held until relatively recently."[72] The evangelical preacher Francis Chan has made statements that contradict the sinner's prayer and emphasizes baptism and the Holy Spirit.[73] David Platt, head pastor of The Church at Brook Hills and author of the book Radical in an article in Christianity Today: "Is it possible for people to say they believe in Jesus, to say they have accepted Jesus, to say that they have received Jesus, but they are not saved and will not enter the kingdom of heaven? Is it possible? Absolutely, it's possible. It's not just possible; it is probable". While he affirmed that people calling out to God with repentant faith is fundamental to being saved, he said his comments about the "sinner's prayer" have been deeply motivated "by a concern for authentic conversions".[74]

In agreement with the pervailing view in the Churches of Christ, the ICoC believes that it is necessary to have an understanding of Baptism's role in salvation.[75] According to The Encyclopedia of Cults, Sects and New Religions "Members believe that one must be a disciple first for baptism to be valid. Often a member who has been previously baptized in the International Church of Christ will decide he or she did not have a proper understanding of baptism at the time of his baptism or that he was not a true disciple at the time of the earlier baptism and will be baptized a second time. Discipleship is very important to the movement. In the movement, a disciple is one is faithfully following Christ and has taken on the lifestyle and purpose of making disciples of all nations. Every single member of every congregation is supposed to be committed to making disciples.[76]


An ICOC Church Service in the Boston Garden. Prior to the building's demolition in 1998, the Massachusetts congregation held Sunday services in the Boston Garden arena.[19]

Sunday worship

A typical Sunday morning service involves singing, praying, preaching, and the sacrament of the Boston University Chaplain Bob Thornburg. "They put very little money into buildings...You put your money into people who reach out to more people in order to help them become Christians."[77]

This practice of not owning buildings changed when the Tokyo Church of Christ became the first ICOC church to build its own church building. This building was designed by the Japanese architect Fumihiko Maki.[78] This became an example for other ICOC churches to follow suit.

One Year Challenge

To provide an international service opportunity for college-age students, the ICOC has a program called the "One Year Challenge" (OYC), where graduating students take a year off and go and serve another church in the Third World[79] or a recently planted church in the First World looking to reach younger people with the gospel.[80]

Bible talks

A Bible Talk is a small group of disciples that meet usually once a week. They can meet almost anywhere, including college dormitories, restaurants, and members' houses. Bible Talks, or 'Family Groups', are designed so that disciples can read the Bible together and build relationships with others in the church. All are encouraged to invite guests as a way for the guest to be introduced to the Church in a more informal setting. The Bible Talk is very similar to the "cell group" or "small group" structure found in many churches to facilitate close relationships amongst members.


Disciples are student-followers of Jesus Christ. The practice of discipling involves mentoring and accountability partnerships and is one of the central elements of the ICOC's beliefs. Members who have mentoring and accountability relationships ("discipling") believe that this practice is based upon and encouraged by Biblical passages like: Ecclesiastes 4:9–12; Proverbs 11:25; Proverbs 27:17; Hebrews 10:25; James 5:16 among others. They also cite numerous examples of such relationships found in scripture like Moses and Joshua, Elijah and Elisha, Jesus and the early disciples, Paul and Timothy.

Kip McKean, who was the leader of the ICOC until 2001, said:

The church's emphasis on discipling has not been without its critics. A number of ex-members have expressed problems with discipling in the ICOC.[26] After the removal of McKean, the practice of "Discipleship Partners" has taken on a more "servant leadership approach". Michael Taliaferro explains in a survey of ICOC churches: "We fully recognize that discipleship partners today are (thankfully) much different than what many were experiencing 10 years ago. We know that we blew it in this area in the past. We also feel that we have grown. As far as we know, no churches assign the partners (everyone chooses for themselves), and all respondents were very convicted about the need for relationships that are not harsh or bossy, but rather Biblically balanced, respectful, and mature."[81]

The ICOC on US college campuses

The ICMC held in Chicago in 2009

The ICOC has a history of over thirty years of evangelizing on college campuses.[82] Each year an International Campus Ministry Conference (ICMC) is held for college students. In 2004, the ICMC in San Antonio there were 200 campus participants. In 2011, they had 2500 students meet in 2 different locations, one in

  • Official website of the International Churches of Christ
  • News and opinion on the ICOC

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  73. ^
  74. ^
  75. ^ Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, ISBN 978-0-8028-3898-8, 854 pages, entry on Baptism
  76. ^ The Encyclopedia of Cults, Sects and New Religions, 2nd Ed. by James R. Lewis (p 426) Prometheus Books, 2002
  77. ^ David Frey (July 1999). "The Fear of God: Critics Call Thriving Nashville Church a Cult". InReview Online. 
  78. ^ Tokyo Church of Christ page on the McGill University website (accessed 21 February 2011)
  79. ^
  80. ^
  81. ^ Survey of Discipling relationships in the ICOC
  82. ^
  83. ^
  84. ^
  85. ^
  86. ^
  87. ^
  88. ^ Chemical Recovery Ministry
  89. ^ IPI
  90. ^ affiliated Organizations
  91. ^ IMS
  92. ^


See also

  • KNN/Disciples, a production of Kingdom News Network (KNN) — non-profit religious corporation in Illinois.
  • Illumination Publishers International (IPI) — Christian writing and audio teaching[89]
  • Athens Institute of Ministry[90]
  • Baltic Nordic Missions Alliance
  • European Bible School
  • Florida Missions Council
  • International Missions Society, Inc. (IMS)[91]
  • Taiwan Mission Adventure
  • Ministry Training Academy[92]

The following institutions are operated or managed by the ICOC:

Multiple ICOC churches have a Chemical Recovery Ministry aimed at helping people with addictions to alcohol, drugs and nicotine.[88]

Affiliated organizations

The Central Christian Church in Singapore, which is a part of the ICOC family of churches, won a court case (SINGAPORE HIGH COURT – SUIT NOs 846 and 848 of 1992 Judges LAI KEW CHAI J Date 29 August 1994 Citation [1995] 1 SLR 115) where the judge ruled against a newspaper that had accused the Church of being a cult. An expert on religious studies testified that the Central Christian Church's practices were "neither strange, unnatural or harmful."[87]

Public Perception

At the University of Southern California, the school newspaper ran an article criticising the church, after questioning the sources of the article the Dean of Religious Life, Revd. Elizabeth Davenport, Senior Associate Dean of Religious Life, and Sherry Caudle, Administrator for the Office of Religious Life wrote a letter to the editor. The school officials said that the author's information was "outdated and misleading." They said "the church is unfairly and incorrectly identified" as a problem group. They also said that the truth is "the church has been a very positive influence in the lives of the USC students in recent years."[86]

The ICOC has received criticism for its proselytizing on US college campuses. Jeffrey K. Hadden, responded "[e]very new religion experiences a high level of tension with society because its beliefs and ways are unfamiliar. But most, if they survive, we come to accept as part of the religious landscape".[16]

[85] were then donated to orphans.lightsabers battle with 1200 lightsabers being used, (bettering the old record by 200). These lightsaber and San Diego with 2700 students in attendance. The students set a new World Record by holding a Orlando, Florida The 2013 ICMC conferences were held in [84] In 2013, the Campus Ministries of the ICOC raised $12 900 for "Chance for Africa", a charity that helps educate Primary and Secondary School children in Africa.[83]

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