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La Amistad

La Amistad
Career (United States)
Name: Friendship
Career (Honduras)
Name: La Amistad
Port of registry: Honduras, Guanaja
Career (United States)
Name: Ion
Owner: Captain George Hawford, Newport, Rhode Island
Acquired: 1840
Career (Guadaloupe)
Acquired: 1844
General characteristics
Length: 120 ft (37 m)
Sail plan: schooner

La Amistad (pronounced: ; Spanish for Friendship) was a 19th-century two-masted schooner built in Spain and owned by a Spaniard living in Cuba. While it was transporting Mende captives originally kidnapped in Sierra Leone from Havana, Cuba,[1] in July 1839, the Africans took control of the ship. La Amistad was captured off the coast of Long Island by the brig USS Washington.[2] The Mende and La Amistad were interned while court proceedings were undertaken for their disposition. The case, United States v. The Amistad (1841) was finally decided by the Supreme Court of the United States in favor of the Mende, restoring their freedom. It became a symbol in the movement to abolish slavery.

Contents

  • The mutiny 1
    • Court case 1.1
  • The ship 2
  • Later years 3
  • Legacy 4
  • La Amistad in popular culture 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Further reading 8
  • External links 9

The mutiny

A print of Cinqué that appeared in The Sun on August 31, 1839
1840 engraving depicting the Amistad revolt

Amistad, a Spanish slave ship, left Havana, Cuba for Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship carried 53 Mende captives (49 adults and 4 children), who had been captured from Sierra Leone to be sold into slavery in Cuba.[3] On July 2, Sengbe Pieh (later known in the United States as Joseph Cinqué) led the captives in a revolt against their captors. The Mende had been brought into Havana aboard the larger specialized vessel Tecora and were being taken to a smaller port closer to a sugar plantation. In the main hold below decks, the captives found a rusty file. Freeing themselves, they quickly went up on deck and, armed with machete-like cane knives,[4] successfully gained control of the ship. They killed the captain and other crew members.[3] When they demanded to be returned home, the ship's navigator, Don Pedro Montez, deceived them about their course and sailed the ship north along the North American coast to the eastern tip of Long Island, New York. Discovered by the Revenue Cutter USRC Washington, La Amistad was taken into custody. The Mende were interned at New Haven, Connecticut, while the courts settled their legal status and conflicting claims regarding La Amistad '​s ownership.[3]

Court case

Text of the Amistad Supreme Court decision

A widely publicized court case ensued in New Haven, Connecticut, to settle legal issues about the ship and the status of the Mende captives. It became a cause célèbre among abolitionists in the United States. At the time, the United States and Britain had prohibited the international slave trade.[5] The ship's owners fraudulently described the Mende as having been born in Cuba, in order to avoid this prohibition. The court had to determine if the Mende were to be considered salvage and the property of Naval officers who had taken custody of the ship, the property of the Cuban buyers, or the property of Spain as Queen Isabella II of Spain claimed; or if the circumstances of their capture and transportation meant they were free.[3]

On appeal, the United States v. The Amistad case reached the US Supreme Court. In 1841, it ruled that the Mende had been illegally transported and held as slaves, and ordered them freed.[3] Thirty-five[3] survivors returned to Africa in 1842, aided by funds raised by the United Missionary Society, a black group founded by James W.C. Pennington, a Congregational minister and fugitive slave in the Northeast.[6]

The ship

La Amistad was a 19th-century two-masted schooner of about 120 feet (37 m). Built in the United States, La Amistad was originally named Friendship but it was renamed after being purchased by a Spaniard. Strictly speaking, La Amistad was not a slave ship; it was not designed to transport large cargoes of slaves, nor did it engage in the Middle Passage of Africans to the Americas. The crew of La Amistad, lacking purpose-built slave quarters, placed half the captives in the main hold, and the other half on deck. The captives were relatively free to move about, which aided their revolt and commandeering of the vessel.

La Amistad engaged in shorter, coastal trade. The primary cargo carried by La Amistad was sugar-industry products, and its normal route ran from Havana to its home port of Guanaja. It also took on passengers and, on occasion, slaves for transport. The captives who revolted while aboard La Amistad had been illegally transported from Africa to Cuba aboard the slave ship Tecora.

Later years

After being moored at the wharf behind the Newport, Rhode Island, purchased the vessel and then needed an Act of Congress passed to register it. He renamed it Ion. In late 1841, he sailed Ion to Bermuda and Saint Thomas with a typical New England cargo of onions, apples, live poultry, and cheese.

After sailing Ion for a few years, Hawford sold it in Guadeloupe in 1844. There is no record of what became of Ion under the new French owners in the Caribbean.

Legacy

Freedom Schooner Amistad
Freedom Schooner Amistad at Mystic Seaport in 2010.
Career (United States)
Owner: Amistad America, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut
Builder: Mystic Seaport
Laid down: 1998
Launched: 25 March 2000
General characteristics
Tons burthen: 136 L. tons
Length: 80.7 ft (24.6 m)
Beam: 22.9 ft (7.0 m)
Draft: 10.1 ft (3.1 m)
Propulsion: Sail, 2 Caterpillar diesel engines
Sail plan: Topsail schooner

Between 1998 and 2000, artisans at Mystic Seaport, Mystic, Connecticut, built a replica of La Amistad, using traditional skills and construction techniques common to wooden schooners built in the 19th century, but using modern materials and engines. They christened the ship Freedom Schooner Amistad. The modern-day ship is not an exact replica of La Amistad, as it is slightly longer and has higher freeboard. There were no old blueprints of the original.

The new schooner was built using a general knowledge of the Baltimore Clippers and art drawings from the era. Some of the tools used in the project were the same as those that might have been used by a 19th-century shipwright while others were powered. Tri-Coastal Marine,[7] designers of Freedom Schooner Amistad, used modern computer technology to develop plans for the vessel. Bronze bolts are used as fastenings throughout the ship. Freedom Schooner Amistad has an external ballast keel made of lead and two Caterpillar diesel engines. None of this technology was available to 19th-century builders.

Freedom Schooner Amistad was operated by Amistad America, Inc., based in New Haven, Connecticut. The ship's mission was to educate the public on the history of slavery, abolition, discrimination, and civil rights. The homeport is New Haven, where the Amistad trial took place. It has also traveled to port cities for educational opportunities. Freedom Schooner Amistad was the State

  • Travel ItineraryDiscover Our Shared Heritage: Seeking Freedom in Connecticut, a National Park Service Amistad
  • CaptiveAmistadSarah Margru Kinson, the Two Worlds of an
  • sailingFreedom Schooner Amistad, YouTube video
  • The Amistad Affair
  • Google Map of The Amistad Slave Revolt

External links

  • Owens, William A. (1997). Black Mutiny: The Revolt on the Schooner Amistad,
    Black Classic Press, p. 322, ISBN 978-1-57478-004-8, Book
  • Pesci, David (1997) Amistad
    Da Capo Press, p. 292, ISBN 978-1-56924-703-7, Book
  • Zeuske, Michael (2014). "Rethinking the Case of the Schooner Amistad: Contraband and Complicity after 1808/1820". Slavery & Abolition 35 (1): 156–164.  

Further reading

  1. ^ Case"Amistad"Teaching With Documents:The .  
  2. ^ Between 1838 and 1848 the Washington was transfert from the United States Revenue Cutter Service to the US Navy , see: Howard I. Chapelle, "The history of the American sailing navy", Norton / Bonanza Books New York 1949, ISBN 0-517-00487-9
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Unidentified Young Man".  
  4. ^ Finkenbine, Roy E (2001). "13 The Symbolism of Slave Mutiny: Black Abolitionist Responses to the Amistad and Creole Incidents". In Hathaway, Jane. Rebellion, Repression, Reinvention: Mutiny in Comparative Perspective. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 238.  
  5. ^ "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875". U.S. Congressional House Proceedings. 9th Congress. 2nd Session. Library of Congress. p. 426. American Memory. Retrieved 2012-07-11. 
  6. ^ Webber, Christopher L. (2011). American to the Backbone: The Life of James W.C. Pennington, the Fugitive Slave Who Became One of the First Black Abolitionists. New York: Pegasus Books. ISBN 1605981753, pp. 162–169.
  7. ^ "Amistad"The New Topsail Schooner . Retrieved 2012-08-18. 
  8. ^ "State of Connecticut Sites, Seals, & Symbols". Connecticut State Register & Manual. Retrieved 2012-08-18. 
  9. ^ "State Missed Signs As Tall Ship Amistad Foundered". The Hartford Courant. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  10. ^ Lender, Jon (4 September 2013). "Malloy Wants 'Action Plan' For Troubled Amistad". The Hartford Courant. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  11. ^ Collins, David (10 May 2013). "Amistad still sails some troubled waters". The Day (New London CT). Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  12. ^ "Amistad Sails Into Bristol For Slave Trade Commemorations".  
  13. ^ Lender, Jon (3 August 2013). "Troubles Aboard The Amistad". The Hartford Courant. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  14. ^ Bloom, Harold (2005). Poets and Poems. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. pp. 348–351.  

References

See also

  • In January 2011, Random House published Ardency, a collection of poems written over twenty years by American poet Kevin Young which "gathers here a chorus of voices that tells the story of the Africans who mutinied on board the slave ship Amistad".
  • The slave revolt aboard the La Amistad, the background of the slave trade and its subsequent trial is retold in a celebrated[14] poem by Robert Hayden entitled Middle Passage, first published in 1962.
  • On 2 September 1839, a play entitled The Long, Low Black Schooner, based on the revolt, opened in New York City and played to full houses. (La Amistad was painted black at the time of the revolt.)

La Amistad in popular culture

The Amistad Research Center at Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, is devoted to research about slavery, abolition, civil rights and African Americans; it commemorates the revolt of slaves on the ship by the same name. A collection of portraits of La Amistad survivors that were drawn by William H. Townsend during the survivors' trial are held in the collection of Yale University.[3]

Freedom Schooner Amistad made several commemorative voyages: one in 2007 to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade in Britain (1807) and the United States (1808),[12] and one in 2010 to celebrate the 10th anniversary of its 2000 launching at Mystic Seaport. It undertook a two-year refit at Mystic Seaport from 2010 and has subsequently been mainly used for sea training in Maine, and film work.[13]

[11][10][9]

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