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Languages of India

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Languages of India

Languages of India
Language families of the Indian sub-continent.
Nihali, Kusunda, and Thai languages are not shown.
Official languages English • Hindi (Central Union Government and some state governments) • Assamese • Bengali • Bodo • Dogri • Gujarati • Kannada • Kashmiri • Konkani • Maithili • Malayalam • Manipuri • Marathi • Nepali • Odia • Punjabi • Sanskrit • Santali • Sindhi • Tamil • Telugu • Tulu • Urdu
Sign languages Indo-Pakistani Sign Language
Alipur Sign Language
Naga Sign Language (extinct)

There are several Languages in India belonging to different language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 73% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 24% of Indians. [1][2] Other languages spoken in India belong to the Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman, a few minor language families and isolates.[3]

The Constitution of India does not give any language the status of National Language.[4][5] The official languages of the Union Government of the Republic of India are Hindi in the Devanagari script and English,[6] a position supported by a High Court ruling.[4] The Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution lists 22 languages, which have been referred to as scheduled languages and given recognition, status and official encouragement. In addition, the Government of India has awarded the distinction of classical language to Tamil, Sanskrit, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Odia (formerly known as Oriya) .

The 1991 census recognized 1576 rationalized mother tongues which were further grouped into language categories. The 1961 census recognized 1,652,[7] and the 2011 census recognized 1,635.[8] (SIL Ethnologue lists 415). According to Census of India of 2001, 30 languages are spoken by more than a million native speakers, 122 by more than 10,000. More than three millennia of language contact has led to significant mutual influence among the four language families in India and South Asia. Two contact languages have played an important role in the history of India: Persian and English.[9]

History

The Hindi-belt, including Hindi-related languages such as Rajasthani and Bihari.

The northern Indian languages from the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family evolved from Old Indic by way of the Middle Indic Prakrit languages and Apabhraṃśa of the Middle Ages. The Indo-Aryan languages developed and emerged in three stages - Old Indo-Aryan (1500 BCE to 600 BCE), Middle Indo-Aryan stage (600 BCE and 1OOO CE) and New Indo-Aryan (bwteen 1000 CE and 1300 CE). Modern north Indian languages, such as Hindi (or more correctly, Hindustani), Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Punjabi and Odia, evolved into distinct, recognisable languages in the New Indo-Aryan Age.[10]

Each of these language had different influences. For example, Hindustani was strongly influenced by Sanskrit and Persian, with these influences leading to the emergence of Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu as registers of the Hindustani language.[11][12] Modern Standard Hindi is recognised as the official language of India while Urdu is a scheduled language. Of all the classical languages from the Indo-Aryan language family, Odia is the least influenced by any foreign language.

The Dravidian languages of South India had a history independent of Sanskrit. The major Dravidian language are Telugu, Kannada, Tamil and Malayalam and Tulu.[13] Though Malayalam and Telugu are Dravidian in origin, over eighty percent of their lexicon is borrowed from Sanskrit.[14][15][16][17] The Telugu script can reproduce the full range of Sanskrit phonetics without losing any of the text's originality,[18] whereas the Malayalam script includes graphemes capable of representing all the sounds of Sanskrit and all Dravidian languages.[19][20] The Austroasiatic and Tibeto-Burman languages of North-East India also have long independent histories.

As regards to linguistics, the earliest instance in history is Panini's Sanskrit grammar dated to ca. 400 BCE. This work and those of commentators on this book, Patanjali (250 BCE) and Katyayana (150 BCE), form a linguistic canon which profoundly influenced linguistic form, semantics, philosophy and development in the centuries to come. In addition, these works provided the broad format for Indian religious and philosophical literature in later times, i.e., the original text in the form of aphorisms (sutras) followed by commentary in the form of text (bhasya).[21]

Inventories

Dialectologists distinguish the terms "language" and "dialect" on the basis of mutual intelligibility. The Indian census uses two specific classifications in its own unique way: (1) 'language' and (2) 'mother tongue'. The 'mother tongues' are grouped within each 'language'. Many 'mother tongues' so defined would be considered a language rather than a dialect by linguistic standards. This is especially so for many 'mother tongues' with tens of millions of speakers that are officially grouped under the 'language' Hindi.

The Indian census of 1961 recognised 1,652 different "mother tongues" in India (including dialects, sub-dialects, dialect clusters, and languages not native to the subcontinent).[7] The 1991 census recognizes 1,576 classified "mother tongues"[22] The People of India (POI) project of Anthropological Survey of India reported 325 languages which are used for in-group communication by the Indian communities.SIL Ethnologue lists 415 living "Languages of India" (out of 6,912 worldwide).

According to the 1991 census, 22 'languages' had more than a million native speakers, 50 had more than 100,000 and 114 had more than 10,000 native speakers. The remaining accounted for a total of 566,000 native speakers (out of a total of 838 million Indians in 1991).[22]

According to the most recent census of 2001, 29 'languages' have more than a million native speakers, 60 have more than 100,000 and 122 have more than 10,000 native speakers. There are a few languages like Kodava and Tulu that do not have a script but have a group of native speakers in Dakshina Kannada.

Language families

Ethnolinguistically, the languages of South Asia, echoing the complex history and geography of the region, form a complex patchwork of language families, language phyla and isolates.[23] The languages of India belong to several language families, the most important of which are :[24]

Indo-Aryan language family

The largest of the language families represented in India, in terms of speakers, is the Indo-Aryan language family, a branch of the Indo-Iranian family, itself the easternmost, extant subfamily of the Indo-European language family. This language family predominates, accounting for some 700 million speakers, or 69% of the population.[1] The most widely spoken languages of this group are Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Urdu, Gujarati, Punjabi, and Odia. Aside from the Indo-Aryan languages, other Indo-European languages are also spoken in India, the most prominent of which is English, as a lingua franca, the rest being minority languages such as Persian, Portuguese and French.

Dravidian language family

The second largest language family is the Dravidian language family, accounting for some 200 million speakers, or 26%.[1] The Dravidian languages are spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India as well as in parts of northeastern Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. The Dravidian languages with the most speakers are Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, and Kannada.[25] Besides the mainstream population, Dravidian languages are also spoken by small scheduled tribe communities, such as the Oraon and Gond tribes.[26] Only two Dravidian languages are exclusively spoken outside India, Brahui in Pakistan and Dhangar, a dialect of Kurukh, in Nepal.

Austroasiatic language family

Families with smaller numbers of speakers are Austroasiatic and numerous small Tibeto-Burman languages, with some 10 and 6 million speakers, respectively, together 5% of the population.[1]

The Austroasiatic language family (austro meaning South) is the autochthonous language in South Asia and Southeast Asia, other language families having arrived by migration. Austroasiatic languages of mainland India are the Khasi language and and Munda language group, including Santhali. The languages of the Nicobar islands also form part of this language family. With the exceptions of Khasi and Santhali, all Austroasiatic languages on Indian territory are endangered.[27]

Tibeto-Burman language family

The Tibeto-Burman languages, a subfamily of Sino-Tibetan language family, comprising those languages of that language family not related to Chinese, are well represented in India. However their inter-se relationships are not discernible, and the family has been described as "a patch of leaves on the forest floor" rather than with the conventional metaphor of a "family tree".[23]

Tibeto-Burman languages are spoken across the Himalayas in the regions of Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh, and also in the Indian states of West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura and Mizoram. Tibeto-Burman languages spoken in India include Karbi, Meitei, Lepcha, as well as many varieties of several related Tibetic, West Himalayish, Tani, Brahmaputran, Angami–Pochuri, Tangkhul, Zeme, Kukish language groups, amongst many others.

Great Andamanese language family

The extinct and endangered languages of the Andaman Islands form a fifth family- the Great Andamanese language family, comprising two families, namely:[28]

  • the Great Andamanese, comprising a number of extinct languages apart from one highly endangered language with a dwindling number of speakers.
  • the Ongan family of the southern Andaman Islands, comprising two extant languages, Önge and Jarawa, and one extinct tongue, Jangil.

In addition, Sentinelese, an unattested language of the Andaman Islands, is generally considered to be related and part of the language family.[28]

Language isolates

The only language found in the Indian linguistic panorama considered as a language isolate is Nahali. The other language isolates found in the rest of South Asia include Burushaski, a tongue spoken in Gilgit–Baltistan (northern Pakistan), Kusunda (in western Nepal) and Vedda (in Sri Lanka).[23] The validity of the Great Andamanese language group as a language family has been questioned and it has been considered as a language isolate by some authorities.[23][29][30]

In addition, a Bantu language, Sidi, was spoken until the mid-20th century in Gujarat.[31]

Influences

The language families in India are not necessarily related to the various ethnic groups in India, specifically the Indo-Aryan and Dravidian people. The languages within each family have been influenced to a large extent by both families. For example, many of the South Indian languages; specifically Malayalam and Telugu, have been highly influenced by Sanskrit (an Indo-Aryan language). The current vocabulary of those languages include between 70-80% of Sanskritised content in their purest form.

Urdu has also had a significant influence on many of today's Indian languages. Many North Indian languages have lost much of their Sanskritised base (50% current vocabulary) to a more Urdu-based form. In terms of the written script, most Indian languages, except the Tamil script nearly perfectly accommodate the Sanskrit language. South Indian languages have adopted new letters to write various Indo-Aryan based words as well, and have added new letters to their native alphabets as the languages began to mix and influence each other.

Though various Indo-Aryan and Dravidian languages may seem mutually exclusive when first heard, there is a much deeper underlying influence that both language families have had on each other down to a linguistic science. There is proof of the intermixing of Dravidian and Indo-Aryan languages through the pockets of Dravidian based languages on remote areas of Pakistan, and interspersed areas of North India. In addition, there is a whole science regarding the tonal and cultural expression within the languages that are quite standard across India. Languages may have different vocabulary, but various hand and tonal gestures within two unrelated languages can still be common due to cultural amalgamations between invading people and the natives over time; in this case, the Indo-Aryan peoples and the native Dravidian people.

Official languages

In British India, English was the sole language used for administrative purposes as well as for higher education purposes. When India became independent in 1947, the Indian legislators had the challenge of choosing a language for official communication as well as for communication between different linguistic regions across India. The choices available were:

  • Making "Hindi", which a plurality of the people (41%) identified as their native language, the official language, though only a minority of these "Hindi" speakers spoke Hindi proper.
  • Making English, as preferred by non-Hindi speakers, particularly Kannadigas and Tamils, and those from Mizoram and Nagaland, the official language. See also Anti-Hindi agitations.
  • Declare both Hindi and English as official languages and each state is given freedom to choose the official language of the state.

The Indian constitution, in 1950, declared Hindi in Devanagari script to be the official language of the union.[32] Unless Parliament decided otherwise, the use of English for official purposes was to cease 15 years after the constitution came into effect, i.e. on 26 January 1965.[32] The prospect of the changeover, however, led to much alarm in the non Hindi-speaking areas of India, especially in South India whose native tongues are not related to Hindi. As a result, Parliament enacted the Official Languages Act in 1963,[33][34][35][36][37][38] which provided for the continued use of English for official purposes along with Hindi, even after 1965.

National level

The official languages of the Union Government (not the entire country) are Hindi and English. According to the article 343 (1) of the Constitution of India, "The Official Language of the Union government shall be Hindi in Devanagari script."[39]

The Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India lists 22 languages.[40] The table below lists the 22 languages set out in the eighth schedule as of May 2008, together with the regions where they are used.


The government of India has given the scheduled languages the status of official language. The number of languages given this status has increased through the political process.

Some languages with many speakers still do not have official language status, the largest of these being Bhili/Bhiladi with some 9.6 million native speakers (ranked 14th), followed by Garhwali with 2.9 million speakers, Gondi with 2.7 million speakers (ranked 18th) and Khandeshi with 2.1 million speakers (ranked 22nd). On the other hand, 2 languages with fewer than 2 million native speakers have recently been included in the 8th Schedule for mostly political reasons: Manipuri/Meitei with 1.5 million speakers (ranked 25th) and Bodo with 1.4 million speakers (ranked 26th).

State level

Article 345 of the constitution authorizes the several states of India to adopt as "official languages" of that state — which people of that state can then use in all dealings with all branches of the local, state and federal governments — either Hindi or any one or more of the languages spoken in that state. Until the Twenty-First Amendment of the Constitution in 1967, the country recognised 14 official regional languages. The Eighth Schedule and the Seventy-First Amendment provided for the inclusion of Sindhi, Konkani, Meiteilon and Nepali, thereby increasing the number of official regional languages of India to 18. At present there are 22 official languages of India.[40]

The individual states, the borders of most which are or were drawn socio-linguistic lines, can legislate their own official languages, depending on their linguistic demographics. For example, the state of Andhra Pradesh has Telugu as its sole official language, the state of Karnataka has Kannada as its sole official language, the state of Gujarat has Gujarati as its sole official language, the state of Maharashtra has Marathi as its sole official language, the state of Rajasthan has Marwari, the state of Punjab has Punjabi as its sole official language, the state of Odisha has Odiya as its sole official language, the state of Tamil Nadu has Tamil as its sole official language, while the state of Telangana has Telugu and Urdu as its official languages, the state of Kerala has Malayalam and English as its official languages, the state of Jammu and Kashmir has Kashmiri, Urdu, and Dogri as its official languages, the state of Assam has Assamese and Bodo as its official languages, and Bengali in the Barak Valley.

Hindi

Hindi is the most prominent language spoken in the country.

English

British colonial legacy has resulted in English being the primary language for government, business and education. Despite the fact that Hindi serves as a lingua franca over large parts of India, there is considerable opposition to the imposition of Hindi in the southern states of India, and English has emerged as a defacto lingua franca over much of India.

Sanskrit

Ethnolinguistically, Sanskrit has been the root of the most of the major languages in India.

Classical languages

In 2004, the Government of India declared that languages that met certain requirements could be accorded the status of a "Classical Language in India".[41] Languages thus far declared to be Classical are Tamil (in 2004),[42] Sanskrit (in 2005),[43] Telugu (in 2008), Kannada (in 2008),[44] Malayalam (in 2013)[45] and Oriya - now called Odia (in 2014).[46][47]

In a 2006 press release, Minister of Tourism & Culture Ambika Soni told the Rajya Sabha the following criteria were laid down to determine the eligibility of languages to be considered for classification as a "Classical Language",[48]

High antiquity of its early texts/recorded history over a period of 1500–2000 years; a body of ancient literature/texts, which is considered a valuable heritage by generations of speakers; the literary tradition be original and not borrowed from another speech community; the classical language and literature being distinct from modern, there may also be a discontinuity between the classical language and its later forms or its offshoots.

The Government has been criticised for not including Pali as a classical language, as experts have argued it fits all the above criteria.[49]

Benefits

As per Government of India's Resolution No. 2-16/2004-US(Akademies) dated 1 November 2004, the benefits that will accrue to a language declared as "Classical Language" are

  1. Two major international awards for scholars of eminence in Classical Indian Languages are awarded annually.
  2. A 'Centre of Excellence for Studies in Classical Languages' is set up.
  3. The University Grants Commission be requested to create, to start with at least in the Central Universities, a certain number of Professional Chairs for Classical Languages for scholars of eminence in Classical Indian Languages.[50]

Other local languages and dialects

In addition, the 2001 census identified the following native languages (i.e. languages and dialects) having more than one million speakers. All were grouped under Hindi or Odia.[51]
Languages No. of native speakers[52]
Bhojpuri 33,099,497
Rajasthani 18,355,613
Magadh/Magahi 13,978,565
Chhattisgarhi 13,260,186
Haryanvi 7,997,192
Marwari 7,936,183
Malvi 5,565,167
Mewari 5,091,697
Khorth/Khotta 4,725,927
Bundeli/Bundelkhan 3,072,147
Bagheli/Baghel Khan 2,865,011
Pahari 2,832,825
Laman/Lambadi 2,707,562
Awadhi 2,529,308
Harauti 2,462,867
Garhwali 2,267,314
Nimadi 2,148,146
Sadan/Sadri 2,044,776
Kumauni 2,003,783
Dhundhari 1,871,130
Surgujia 1,458,533
Bagri Rajasthani 1,434,123
Banjari 1,259,821
Nagpuria (Varhadi) 1,242,586
Sambalpuri 1,217,019
Kangri 1,122,843

Practical problems

India has hundreds of languages in use. Therefore, choosing any single language as an official language presents serious problems to all those whose "mother tongue" is different. However, all the boards of education across India, recognize the 'need' for training people to one common language.[53] This results in many complaints: There are many complaints that in North India, non-Hindi speakers have language trouble. Similarly, there are numerous complaints that all North Indians have to undergo considerable difficulties on account of language when traveling to South India. It is common to hear of incidents that result due to friction between those who strongly believe in the chosen official language, and those who follow the thought that the chosen language(s) do not take into account everyone's preferences.[54] Local official language commissions have been established and various steps are being taken in a direction to reduce tensions and friction.

Language conflicts

There are some significant conflicts over linguistic rights in India. The first major linguistic conflict, known as the Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu, took place in Tamil Nadu against the implementation of Hindi as the sole official language of India. Political analysts consider this as a major factor in bringing DMK to power and leading to the ousting and nearly total elimination of the Congress party in Tamil Nadu.[55] Strong cultural pride based on language is also found in other Indian states such as Bengal, Maharashtra and in Karnataka. To express disapproval of the imposition of an alien language Hindi on its people as a result of the central government overstepping its constitutional authority, the governments of Maharashtra and Karnataka made the state languages mandatory in educational institutions.[56]

However, in Andhra Pradesh , Telangana and Kerala, in the majority of the schools, students have to learn English and one chosen regional language (Telugu, Urdu or Hindi, Malayalam) as the main language subjects, and learn another language (Telugu, or Hindi, or Special English) as a special language subject. So, usually they learn three in total.

The Government of India attempts to assuage these conflicts with various campaigns, coordinated by the Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mysore, a branch of the Department of Higher Education, Language Bureau, and the Ministry of Human Resource Development.

Writing systems

Most languages in the Indian republic are written in Brahmi-derived scripts, such as Devanagari, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Odia, Eastern Nagari - Assamese/Bengali, etc., though Urdu is written in a script derived from Arabic, and a few minor languages such as Santali use independent scripts.

Various Indian languages have corresponding scripts for them. Hindi, Marathi and Angika are languages written using the Devanagari script. Most languages are written using a script specific to them, such as Assamese with Assamese/Axomiya, Bengali with Bengali, Punjabi with Gurmukhi, Odia with Utkal Lipi, Gujarati with Gujarati, etc. Urdu and sometimes Kashmiri, Saraiki and Sindhi are written in modified versions of the Perso-Arabic script. With this one exception, the scripts of Indian languages are native to India. (See ISO 15919 regarding Romanization of Indian languages.). Languages like Kodava and Tulu that do not have a script have taken up the scripts of the local official languages as their own and are generally written in the Kannada script.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Ishtiaq, M. (1999). Language Shifts Among the Scheduled Tribes in India: A Geographical Study. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. pp. 26–27.  
  2. ^ The World Factbook. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 28 July 2013.
  3. ^ Nihali and the various Andamanese languages
  4. ^ a b Khan, Saeed (25 January 2010). "There's no national language in India: Gujarat High Court". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 May 2014. 
  5. ^ Hindi, not a national language: Court
  6. ^ Schwartzberg, Joseph E., 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica, India—Linguistic Composition
  7. ^ a b The Indian Census of 1961 recorded a total of 1,652 "mother tongues", counting all declarations made by any individual at the time when the census was conducted. However, the declaring individuals often mixed names of languages with those of dialects, sub-dialects and dialect clusters or even castes, professions, religions, localities, regions, countries and nationalities. The list therefore includes "languages" with barely a few individual speakers as well as 530 unclassified "mother tongues" and more than 100 idioms that are non-native to India, including linguistically unspecific demonyms such as "African", "Canadian" or "Belgian". (Mallikarjun, B.: Mother Tongues of India According to the 1961 Census)
  8. ^ 2011 census general note
  9. ^ Bhatia, Tej K and William C. Ritchie. (2006) Bilingualism in South Asia. In: Handbook of Bilingualism, pp. 780-807. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  10. ^ Kachru, Yamuna (1 January 2006). Hindi. London Oriental and African language library. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 1.  
  11. ^ Kulshreshtha, Manisha; Mathur, Ramkumar (24 March 2012). Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity: A Case Study. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 16.  
  12. ^ Robert E. Nunley, Severin M. Roberts, George W. Wubrick, Daniel L. Roy (1999), The Cultural Landscape an Introduction to Human Geography, Prentice Hall,  
  13. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Dravidian languages — Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 1 August 2010. 
  14. ^ Narayan, Shyamala; Jha, Heukar (1997). Non-fictional Indian prose in English, 1960-1990.  
  15. ^ Malayalam literary survey, Volume 15.  
  16. ^ Gupta, Balarama (2007). The Journal of Indian writing in English, Volume 35. p. 8. 
  17. ^ Velcheru Narayana Rao; David Shulman. "Classical Telugu Poetry" (2 ed.). The Regents of the University of California. p. 3 
  18. ^ Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). A History of Telugu Literature. Asian Educational Services. p. 18.  
  19. ^ Aiyar, Swaminatha (1987). Dravidian theories. p. 286.  
  20. ^ "Malayalam". ALS International. Retrieved 19 June 2011. 
  21. ^ Itkonen, Esa (1 January 1991). Universal History of Linguistics: India, China, Arabia, Europe. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 5, 6.  
  22. ^ a b Indian Census
  23. ^ a b c d Moseley (2008), pg 283.
  24. ^ "India : Languages". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2 December 2014. 
  25. ^ [Dravidian-languages "Dravidian languages"] . Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  26. ^ West, Barbara A. (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. p. 713.  
  27. ^ Moseley (2008), pp 456-457.
  28. ^ a b Niclas Burenhult. "Deep linguistic prehistory with particular reference to Andamanese". Working Papers (Lund University, Dept. of Linguistics) (45): 5–24. Retrieved 2 December 2014. 
  29. ^ Greenberg, Joseph (1971). "The Indo-Pacific hypothesis." Current trends in linguistics vol. 8, ed. by Thomas A. Sebeok, 807.71. The Hague: Mouton.
  30. ^ Abbi, Anvita (2006). Endangered Languages of the Andaman Islands. Germany: Lincom GmbH.
  31. ^ Moseley, Christopher (10 March 2008). Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages. Routledge. p. 528.  
  32. ^ a b "Constitution of India as of 29 July 2008". The Constitution Of India. Ministry of Law & Justice. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  33. ^ DOL
  34. ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities
  35. ^ Language in India
  36. ^ THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ACT, 1963
  37. ^ National Portal of India : Know India : Profile
  38. ^ Committee of Parliament on Official Language report
  39. ^ Oldenburg, Phillip. (1997-2007) Encarta Encyclopedia "India: Official Languages."
  40. ^ a b "Constitution of India". 
  41. ^ "India sets up classical languages". BBC. 17 September 2004. Retrieved 1 May 2007. 
  42. ^ "Front Page : Tamil to be a classical language". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 18 September 2004. Retrieved 1 August 2010. 
  43. ^ "National : Sanskrit to be declared classical language". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 28 October 2005. Retrieved 1 August 2010. 
  44. ^ "Declaration of Telugu and Kannada as classical languages". Press Information Bureau. Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Government of India. Retrieved 31 October 2008. 
  45. ^ "‘Classical’ status for Malayalam". Thiruvananthapuram, India:  
  46. ^ "Odia gets classical language status". The Hindu. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  47. ^ Milestone for state as Odia gets classical language status - The Times of India
  48. ^ "CLASSICAL LANGUAGE STATUS TO KANNADA". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 8 August 2006. Retrieved 6 November 2008. 
  49. ^ Singh, Binay (5 May 2013). "Removal of Pali as UPSC subject draws criticism". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  50. ^ "Classical Status to Oriya Language" (Press release). 14 August 2013. 
  51. ^ 2001 Census
  52. ^ Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues – 2000, Census of India, 2001
  53. ^ Language and Globalization: Center for Global Studies at the University of Illinois
  54. ^ The Pioneer > Columnists
  55. ^ "Magazine / Columns : Hindi against India". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 16 January 2005. Retrieved 1 August 2010. 
  56. ^ "Marathi a must in Maharashtra schools — India News". IBNLive. 3 February 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2010. 

External links

  • Languages and Scripts of India
  • Typing in Indian Languages
  • Diversity of Languages in India
  • A comprehensive federal government site that offers complete info on Indian Languages
  • Technology Development for Indian Languages, Government of India
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