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Lester Maddox

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Subject: Jimmy Carter, Zell Miller, United States presidential election, 1976, List of Governors of Georgia, Electoral history of Jimmy Carter
Collection: 1915 Births, 2003 Deaths, American Anti-Communists, American Independent Party Presidential Nominees, American Restaurateurs, Baptists from the United States, Burials in Georgia (U.S. State), Cancer Deaths in Georgia (U.S. State), Council of Conservative Citizens, Deaths from Pneumonia, Deaths from Prostate Cancer, Democratic Party State Governors of the United States, Georgia (U.S. State) Democrats, Governors of Georgia (U.S. State), Lieutenant Governors of Georgia (U.S. State), Politicians from Atlanta, Georgia, United States Presidential Candidates, 1976
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Lester Maddox

Lester Maddox
75th Governor of Georgia
In office
January 11, 1967 – January 12, 1971
Lieutenant George T. Smith
Preceded by Carl Sanders
Succeeded by Jimmy Carter
7th Lieutenant Governor of Georgia
In office
January 12, 1971 – January 14, 1975
Governor Jimmy Carter
Preceded by George T. Smith
Succeeded by Zell Miller
Personal details
Born Lester Garfield Maddox
(1915-09-30)September 30, 1915
Fulton County
Died June 25, 2003(2003-06-25) (aged 87)
Atlanta, Georgia
Resting place Arlington Memorial Park in Sandy Springs, Georgia
Political party Democratic Party
American Independent Party
Spouse(s) Hattie Virginia Cox (1918–1997)

Linda Maddox Densmore (1938–2011)
Virginia Maddox Carnes
Lester Maddox, Jr.

Larry Maddox
Profession Restaurant owner
Religion Baptist

Lester Garfield Maddox, Sr. (September 30, 1915 – June 25, 2003), was an populist Democrat, Maddox came to prominence as a staunch segregationist,[1] when he refused to serve black customers in his Atlanta restaurant, in defiance of the Civil Rights Act. Yet as Governor, he oversaw notable improvements in black employment. Later he served as Lieutenant Governor under Jimmy Carter.


  • Childhood 1
  • Personal life 2
    • Restaurant owner 2.1
  • Political career 3
    • Early campaigns 3.1
    • 1966 election 3.2
    • Governor of Georgia 3.3
      • Accomplishments in office 3.3.1
    • Lieutenant Governor of Georgia 3.4
    • 1976 Presidential election 3.5
    • Retirement 3.6
  • Later years 4
    • 1983 Congressional election 4.1
    • Possible contamination with HIV 4.2
    • 1990s 4.3
    • Death 4.4
  • Legacy 5
  • Electoral history 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • Notes 9
  • Further reading 10
  • External links 11


Maddox was born in steelworker, and his wife, the former Flonnie Castleberry. Maddox left school shortly before graduation to help support the family by taking odd jobs, including real estate and grocery. He received his high school diploma through correspondence courses.[2]

Personal life

Restaurant owner

In 1944, Maddox, along with his wife, the former Hattie Virginia Cox (1918–1997), used $400 in savings to open a combination grocery store and restaurant called Lester's Grill.[2] Building on that success, the couple then bought property on Hemphill Avenue off the After

1983 Congressional election

Later years

With his political career seemingly over and with massive debts stemming from his 1974 gubernatorial bid, Maddox began a short-lived nightclub comedy career in 1977 with an African American musician Bobby Lee Sears, who had worked as a busboy in his restaurant.[28][note 1] Sears had served time in prison for a drug offense before Maddox, as lieutenant governor, was able to assist him in obtaining a pardon. Calling themselves "The Governor and the Dishwasher," the duo performed comedy bits built around musical numbers with Maddox on harmonica and Sears on guitar.[29]


When Carter ran for President in 1976, Maddox ran against him as the nominee of Wallace's former American Independent Party, saying that his former rival was "the most dishonest man I ever met." The remark was similar to a statement once uttered by Barry Goldwater about U.S. President Richard M. Nixon. Maddox and running mate William Dyke, the former mayor of Madison, Wisconsin, received 170,274 votes in the election (less than 1% of the vote)[27] and no electoral votes.

1976 Presidential election

Maddox ran again for governor in 1974 but lost in the Democratic primary to Macon, who had hoped to have faced Maddox in the fall campaign. Thompson called Maddox "a counterfeit conservative" and challenged the outgoing lieutenant governor to a debate. Maddox's former chief of staff Zell Miller was successful in his own bid to succeed Maddox as lieutenant governor.

Shortly after that election, Maddox appeared as a guest on The Dick Cavett Show on December 18, 1970. During a commercial break, fellow guest and former football player Jim Brown asked Maddox if he had "any trouble with the white bigots because of all the things you did for blacks." On the air, Cavett substituted the word "admirers" in place of "bigots", enraging Maddox. After demanding an apology from Cavett and not getting it, Maddox walked off the show.[26]

Under the Georgia constitution of 1945, Maddox was prohibited from running for a second consecutive term. He therefore waged his second bid for lieutenant governor, the first having resulted in defeat to Peter Zack Geer in 1962. Although Maddox was elected as a Democratic candidate at the same time as Jimmy Carter's election as governor, the two were not running mates; in Georgia, particularly in that era of Democratic dominance, the winners of the primary elections went on to easy victories in the general elections without campaigning together as an official ticket or as running mates. Carter and Maddox found little common ground during their four years of service, often publicly feuding with each other.

Lieutenant Governor of Georgia

Years after Maddox's gubernatorial term ended, Republican Benjamin B. Blackburn described Maddox as a "far better governor than his critics will ever admit." Then a former U.S. representative, Blackburn noted that no claim of corruption arose against Maddox, whose administration was characterized by economic development and the appointment of African Americans to state executive positions.[25]

  • Salary increases (in dollars) during four years as governor were more than for the two previous administrations of Ernest Vandiver and Carl Sanders combined.
  • Percentage of salary increase for elementary and secondary teachers was a record breaker unmatched for another seventeen years.
  • In higher education, the State Board of Regents received the highest budget increase of the latter half of the 20th century. This was probably the largest percentage increase for higher education of any state during the four fiscal years of the Maddox-approved state budget appropriations.
  • Dollars gained for new and expanded industry equaled far surpassed the period from 1947 through 1966.
  • According to a letter written by Maddox in 1999, Maddox "left the Office of Governor with a favorable poll rating of above 84 percent and won the Office of Lieutenant Governor in a landslide vote of more than 73 percent, which remains the greatest percentage of votes for any governor or lieutenant governor against a Republican opponent in a Georgia general election".[4]
  • Maddox was favorably influenced by Murray M. Silver, Esq., General Counsel of the Georgia Department of Labor, and Commissioner Sam Caldwell to hire blacks and to approve legislation affecting unemployment insurance of automobile workers within the state.[23]
  • Maddox integrated the lines of farmer's markets throughout the state, and also urged state troopers to address blacks as Mr. or Mrs. instead of derogatory terms like "nigger." He also reformed Georgia's prisons and health care.[24]

Once in office, however, Maddox accomplished the following:

In the 1966 campaign, the Savannah Morning News forecast that a Governor Maddox would "tell off the federal government forty times a day, but four years after his inauguration, he would have accomplished little else."[22]

Accomplishments in office


Possible contamination with HIV

Maddox had been using drugs from a Bahamian cancer clinic to treat his prostate cancer. In July, 1985, he revealed that the clinic had been shut down by Bahamian officials after its drugs had been found to be contaminated with the AIDS virus.[31] Maddox underwent testing, and two months later announced that he was free of the virus.[32]


Maddox made one final unsuccessful bid for governor in 1990, then underwent heart surgery the following year. In the 1990 Democratic primary for governor, Maddox finished with about three percent of the vote.[33] He remained a visible figure in his home community of Cobb County for the remainder of his life. In 1992 and 1996, Maddox crossed party lines and endorsed unsuccessful populist Republican Patrick J. Buchanan for the presidency. His last public speech was in Atlanta in 2001 at the annual national conference of the Council of Conservative Citizens. The CCC, of which Maddox was a charter member, is considered by the Southern Poverty Law Center[34] and the Anti-Defamation League to be a white supremacist group.


On June 25, 2003, after a fall while recuperating from intestinal surgery in an Atlanta Sandy Springs in northern Fulton County, Georgia.


After Maddox's death in 2003, [1] This view, however, is not universally shared. In its obituary of the former governor, The New York Times called him an "archsegregationist;" to support this contention, the Times noted that his convictions included "the view that blacks were intellectually inferior to whites, that integration was a Communist plot, that segregation was somewhere justified in scripture and that a federal mandate to integrate [all-white] schools was 'ungodly, un-Christian and un-American.'" Despite this, the obituary notes that after becoming governor, Maddox "surprised many by hiring and promoting blacks in state government and by initiating an early release program for the state prison system."[5]

The Interstate Highway 75 bridge over the Cobb County, is named the Lester and Virginia Maddox Bridge.

Maddox's name also appears in the opening lines of Randy Newman's song "Rednecks", in allusion to his appearance on The Dick Cavett Show:

According to an interviewer from the alternative newspaper Creative Loafing, "What offends [Maddox] most is Newman's crude reference to the Jewish man."[24] It should be noted, however, that Newman's lines are from the point of view of an unreliable narrator: specifically, a self-proclaimed "redneck" who assumes, incorrectly, that Cavett is Jewish.

Electoral history

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Former Georgia Gov. Maddox dies". June 25, 2003. Archived from the original on 2008-01-15. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  2. ^ a b Severo, Richard (25 June 2003). "Lester Maddox, Whites-Only Restaurateur and Georgia Governor, Dies at 87". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-11-08. 
  3. ^ Maddox, Lester (1975). Speaking Out: The Autobiography of Lester Garfield Maddox. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. p. 27.  
  4. ^ a b Jacobs, Hal (August 9, 1999). "Hal's Archives". Southern Currents. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  5. ^ a b Severo, Richard (June 25, 2003). "Lester Maddox Dies at 87; Segregationist Was a Georgia Governor". The New York Times. 
  6. ^ Billy Hathorn, "The Frustration of Opportunity: Georgia Republicans and the Election of 1966," Atlanta History: A Journal of Georgia and the South, Vol. XXXI (Winter 1987–1988), p. 38
  7. ^ "Civil Rights Digital Library". Retrieved 2 September 2012. 
  8. ^ "Picture of the Pickrick Cafeteria located in Atlanta at 891 Hemphill Avenue near the campus of the Georgia Institute of Technology". Retrieved 25 May 2011. 
  9. ^ "Georgia Institute of Technology: Campus Map". Retrieved 25 May 2011. 
  10. ^ a b Atlanta History, p. 38
  11. ^ Atlanta History, p. 40
  12. ^ Atlanta History, pp. 40–41
  13. ^ Atlanta History, p. 43
  14. ^ Atlanta History, p. 47
  15. ^ a b c  
  16. ^  
  17. ^ Burns, Rebecca (2011). Burial for a King. Simon and Schuster. pp. 137–138.  
  18. ^ Baxter, Tom (October 21, 1999). "In Recounting Famous Quip, Maddox Gives Clarity to Past". The Atlanta Constitution. 
  19. ^ Sword of the Lord (July 4, 1969) 6.
  20. ^  
  21. ^;query=;brand=default. 
  22. ^ Savannah Morning News and Evening Press, October 9, 1966
  23. ^ Silver, Murray M. (2009). Daddy King and Me. Savannah, GA: CSPBooks. pp. 17–19.  
  24. ^ a b Jacobs, Hal (March 20, 1999). "The Strange but True Tale of Georgia's Unlikeliest Governor". Creative Loafing. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  25. ^ Atlanta History, p. 48
  26. ^ Cavett, Richard A.; Porterfield, Christopher (1974). Cavett. p. 299.  
  27. ^ Leip, David. 1976 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (25 May 2011).
  28. ^ Information on Fears musical career
  29. ^ Bob Short, Everything is Pickrick: The Life of Lester Maddox, Mercer University Press, Macon, GA. (1999) ISBN 0-86554-662-2.
  30. ^ "Maddox Says He May Seek McDonald's Seat in House".  
  31. ^ "Maddox Fears He May Have Contracted Aids".  
  32. ^ "Maddox Gets Good News: No Sign of AIDS".  
  33. ^;query=;brand=default
  34. ^ "Center Report Exposes Links Between Hate Group, Lawmakers". Southern Poverty Law Center. September 2004. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2013-01-08. 


  1. ^ Bobby Lee Fears was a native of Atlanta, who had previously worked as a guitarist and vocalist for the Fabulous Denos, who had a number of releases on the King label. He later joined an early incarnation of the Ohio Players before cutting around three solo records under his own name and using the alias Bobby Dixon

Further reading

  • Bruce Galphin, The Riddle of Lester Maddox (Atlanta: Camelot, 1968).
  • Brad Rice, "Lester Maddox and the Politics of Populism," in Georgia Governors in an Age of Change: From Ellis Arnall to George Busbee, ed. Harold P. Henderson and Gary L. Roberts (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1988).
  • Bob Short, Everything Is Pickrick: The Life of Lester Maddox (Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 1999).

External links

  • Lester! from Creative Loafing, March 20, 1999 (with link to his personal rebuttal to the article)
  • Entry in New Georgia Encyclopedia
  • Oral History Interview with Governor Lester Maddox, March 7, 1986, Georgia's Political Heritage Program.
  • Oral History Interview with Governor Lester Maddox, April 17, 1986, Georgia's Political Heritage Program.
  • Former Georgia Gov. Maddox DiesCNN article: at the Wayback Machine (archived January 15, 2008)
Political offices
Preceded by
Carl Sanders
Governor of Georgia
Succeeded by
Jimmy Carter
Preceded by
George T. Smith
Lieutenant Governor of Georgia
Succeeded by
Zell Miller
Party political offices
Preceded by
John G. Schmitz
American Independent Party Presidential nominee
Succeeded by
John Rarick
In 1968, a small Atlanta repertory company produced a play entitled

Maddox received the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws from Bob Jones University in 1969.[19]

's successor in the U.S. Senate. Paul Coverdell, who went on to serve two terms as governor in the 1990s and as Zell Miller Maddox's chief of staff was [18] Maddox's often self-deprecating humor and off-the-cuff manner stood in contrast to the fiery rhetoric of other Southern politicians such as

Maddox campaigned hard for states' rights and maintained a segregationist stance while in office. Upon the death of American Independent Party candidate in the 1968 presidential election.[15]

Governor of Georgia

Under the election rules then in effect, the state legislature was required to elect one of the two candidates with the highest number of votes, which meant that the lawmakers could not consider Arnall. With the legislature overwhelmingly dominated by Democrats, all of whom had been required to sign a Democratic loyalty oath, Maddox became governor.[14]

The first Republican member of the Reconstruction, Callaway won a plurality in the general election, and Maddox finished second, but more than 52,000 wrote in Arnall's name. (Some liberals disenchanted with both major nominees took the catchy slogan "Go Bo" of Callaway's campaign (referring to Howard "Bo" Callaway) and expanded it to "Go Bo, and take Lester with you".)

Stunned Arnall supporters announced a write-in candidacy for the general election, insisting that Georgians must have the option of a moderate Democrat besides the conservatives Maddox and Callaway. In his general election campaign, Maddox equated the Callaway Republicans to the Pine Mountain, but a superior court judge verified that Callaway had an open admission policy at the facility.[13]

Maddox quipped that he had been nominated despite having "no money, no politicians, no television, no newspapers, no Martin Luther King, no Lyndon Johnson, and we made it!" He joked further that President Johnson had been "the best campaign manager I've got even if he did put me out of business," a reference to the closing of the Pickrick Restaurant to avoid desegregation. On winning the runoff, the Baptist Maddox, who neither smoked nor drank alcohol, decreed God as his "campaign manager".[12]

When Maddox sought the Democratic nomination for governor in 1966, his principal primary opponent was former Governor State Senator Jimmy Carter, later the U.S. President, finished in a strong third place. Again, some Republicans voted in the Democratic primary runoff. Arnall barely campaigned in the runoff, and Maddox emerged victorious, 443,055 to 373,004.[11]

1966 election

In the following years, Maddox proclaimed himself a "Society of Liberty" martyr intent on opposing an awesome central government which thwarted states' rights and gave special protection to minority groups. He was recognized by his rimless eyeglasses, dome-shaped forehead, bald head, and nervous energy. An unidentified Republican viewed Maddox's appeal as follows: "We have a populist revolution in its truest sense moving here. White people who work with their hands see in Lester Maddox a man of their own kind and are fighting to elect him [as governor]."[10] Time magazine termed Maddox a "strident racist"; Newsweek viewed him as a "backwoods demagogue out in the boondocks." Yet, the former restaurateur's appeal transcended race to embrace a right-wing brand of "populism", picturing government, rather than big business, as the villain.[10]

In 1962, Maddox ran for Peter Zack Geer, a candidate with whom he shared segregationist and states' rights views. In an effort to differentiate from each other, each attempted to paint the other as an extremist. Geer won the race, 55–45 percent, but Maddox gained valuable recognition across the state.

During his ownership of the Pickrick, Maddox, a Democrat, failed in two bids for mayor of Atlanta. In 1957, he lost to incumbent William B. Hartsfield, for whom the large airport is named. Hartsfield had pursued a more moderate approach to racial matters. In 1961, Maddox lost to Ivan Allen, Jr., with whom he split the white vote. Allen's ability to garner virtually all of the black vote provided his margin of victory.

Early campaigns

Political career

The building was purchased by Georgia Tech in 1965 and was used for many years as the placement center and was later known as the Ajax building.[8][9] It was demolished on May 14 and 15, 2009.

Maddox closed the Pickrick on August 13, and reopened the business on September 26 as the Lester Maddox Cafeteria, where he pledged to serve only "acceptable" Georgians. During a trial for contempt of court on September 29, Maddox argued against the charges because he was no longer offering service to out-of-state travelers or integrationists. On February 5, 1965 a federal court ruled that Maddox was in contempt of court for failing to obey the injunction and assigned fines of two hundred dollars a day for failing to serve African Americans. Maddox ultimately closed his restaurant on February 7, 1965 rather than integrate it; he claimed that President Lyndon Johnson and communists put him out of business.[7]

The Civil Rights Digital Library at the University of Georgia contains the following account of the closing of his restaurant:

Maddox became a martyr to segregationist advocates by leasing and then selling the restaurant to employees rather than agreeing to serve black customers. He claimed that the issue was not hostility to blacks but constitutional property rights. He even built a monument to "private property rights" near the restaurant.[6]

The "invasion" Maddox referred to above were three black Georgia Tech students who had asked to be seated.[5]

Mostly customers, with only a few employees, voluntarily removed the twelve Pickrick Drumsticks [a euphemism for ax handles] from the nail kegs on each side of the large dining room fireplace. They had been forewarned by the arrival of Atlanta's news media of an impending attempted invasion of our restaurant by the racial demonstrators and once the demonstrators and agitators arrived, the customers and employees pulled the drumsticks [ax handles] from the kegs and went outside to defend against the threatened invasion.[4]

Maddox made the Pickrick a family affair, with his wife and children working side-by-side with him. Known for its simple, inexpensive Southern cuisine, including its specialty, skillet-fried chicken, the Pickrick soon became a thriving business. The restaurant also provided Maddox with his first political forum. He placed advertising which featured cartoon chickens in the Atlanta newspapers. Following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision of the United States Supreme Court, these restaurant ads began to feature the cartoon chickens commenting on the political questions of the day. However, Maddox's refusal to adjust to changes following the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 manifested itself when he filed a lawsuit to continue his segregationist policies. Maddox said that he would close his restaurant rather than serve African Americans. An initial group of black demonstrators came to the restaurant but did not enter when Maddox informed them that he had a large number of black employees. In April 1964, more African Americans attempted to enter the restaurant. Maddox confronted the group with a bare ax handle.[1] Maddox provides the following account of the events:


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