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Monarchy of Ireland

A monarchical system of government existed in Republic of Ireland. Since April 1949, the only part of the island of Ireland that retains a monarchical system is Northern Ireland (as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland).


  • Gaelic kings and kingdoms 1
    • Ard Ri co febressa: High Kings with opposition 1.1
      • High Kings of Ireland 846–1198 1.1.1
      • Ruaidhrí, King of Ireland 1.1.2
  • The Lordship of Ireland:1198–1542 2
    • Lords of Ireland 1177–1541 2.1
  • The Kingdom of Ireland: 1542–1800 3
    • Re-creation of title 3.1
    • Union with Great Britain 3.2
    • Partition: Irish Free State and Northern Ireland (1922–1936) 3.3
    • Abdication crisis, President of Ireland and Republic of Ireland Act (1936–1949) 3.4
    • List of monarchs of Ireland 3.5
      • Monarchs of Ireland 3.5.1
      • Monarchs of the Irish Free State and Ireland 3.5.2
      • Monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 3.5.3
      • King's title, George I – George VI 3.5.4
  • References 4

Gaelic kings and kingdoms

Gaelic Ireland consisted of as few as five and as many as nine Primary kingdoms (Cuaighe) which were often subdivided into many minor smaller kingdoms (Tutha). The primary kingdoms were Connacht, Ailech, Airgíalla, Ulster, Mide, Leinster, Osraige, Munster and Thomond. Until the end of Gaelic Ireland they continued to fluctuate, expand and contract in size, as well as dissolving entirely or being amalgamated into new entities. The role of High King of Ireland was primarily titular and rarely (if ever) absolute. Gaelic Ireland was not ruled as a unitary state.

The names of Connacht, Ulster, Leinster and Munster are still in use, now applied to the four modern provinces of Ireland. The following is a list of the main Irish kingdoms and their kings.

Ard Ri co febressa: High Kings with opposition

Maire Herbert has noted that Annal evidence from the late eighth century in Ireland suggests that the larger provincial kingships were already accruing power at the expense of smaller political units. Leading kings appear in public roles at church-state proclamations ... and at royal conferences with their peers. (2000,p. 62). Responding to the assumption of the title ri hErenn uile (king of all Ireland) by Mael Sechlainn I in 862, she furthermore states that

... the ninth-century assumption of the title of "ri Erenn" was a first step towards the definition of a national kingship and a territorially-based Irish realm. Yet change only gained ground after the stranglehold of Ui Neill power-structures was broken in the eleventh century. ...The renaming of a kingship ... engendered a new self-perception which shaped the future definition of a kingdom and of its subjects.

(Herbert, 2000, p. 72)

Nevertheless, the achievements of Mael Sechlainn and his successors were purely personal, and open to destruction upon their deaths. Between 846–1022, and again from 1042–1166, kings from the leading Irish kingdoms made greater attempts to compel the rest of the island's populace to their rule, with varying degrees of success, until the inauguration of Ruaidri Ua Conchobair (Rory O'Connor) in 1166,

High Kings of Ireland 846–1198

Ruaidhrí, King of Ireland

Upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166, Ruaidhrí, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin where he was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. He was arguably the first undisputed full king of Ireland. He was also the only Gaelic one, as the events of the Norman invasion of 1169–1171 brought about the destruction of the high-kingship, and the direct involvement of the Kings of England in Irish politics.

One of Ruaidrí's first acts as King was the conquest of Leinster, which resulted in the exile of its king, Dermot MacMurrough. Ruaidrí then obtained terms and hostages from all the notable kings and lords. He then celebrated the Oneach Tailtann, a recognised prerogative of the High Kings, and made a number of notable charitable gifts and donations. However, his caput remained in his home territory in central Connacht (County Galway). Ireland's recognised capital, Dublin, was ruled by Ascall mac Ragnaill, who had submitted to Ruaidri.

Only with the arrival of MacMurrough's Anglo-Norman allies in May 1169 did Ruaidrí's position begin to weaken. A series of disastrous defeats and ill-judged treaties lost him much of Leinster, and encouraged uprisings by rebel lords. By the time of the arrival of Henry II in 1171, Ruaidrí's position as king of Ireland was increasingly untenable.

Ruaidrí at first remained aloof from engagement with King Henry, though many of the lesser kings and lords welcomed his arrival as they wished to see him curb the territorial gains made by his vassals. Through the intercession of Dr Lorcán Ua Tuathail (Lawrence O'Toole), the Lord Archbishop of Dublin, Ruaidrí and Henry came to terms with the Treaty of Windsor in 1175. Ruaidrí agreed to recognise Henry as his lord; in return, Ruaidrí was allowed to keep all Ireland as his personal kingdom outside the petty kingdoms of Laigin (Leinster) and Mide as well as the city of Waterford.

Henry was unwilling or unable to enforce the terms of the treaty on his barons in Ireland, who continued to gain territory in Ireland. A low point came in 1177 with a successful raid into the heart of Connacht by a party of Anglo-Normans, led by one of Ruaidrí's sons, Prince Muirchertach. They were expelled, Ruaidhrí ordering the blinding of Muirchertach, but over the next six years his rule was increasingly diminished by internal dynastic conflict and external attacks. Finally, in 1183, he abdicated.

He was twice briefly returned to power in 1185 and 1189, but even within his home kingdom of Connacht he had become politically marginalized. He lived quietly on his estates, and died at the monastery of Cong in 1198 and was buried at Clonmacnoise. With the possible exception of Brian Ua Néill (Brian O'Neill; died 1260), no other Gaelic king was ever again recognised as king or high king of Ireland.

The Lordship of Ireland:1198–1542

By the time of Ruairi's death in 1198, King Henry II of England had invaded Ireland and given the part of it he controlled to his son John as a Lordship when John was just 10 in 1177. When John succeeded to the English throne in 1199, he remained Lord of Ireland thereby bringing the kingdom of England and the lordship of Ireland into personal union. By the mid-13th century, while the island was nominally ruled by the king of England, from c.1260 the effective area of control began to recede. As various Cambro-Norman noble families died out in the male line, the Gaelic nobility began to reclaim lost territory. Successive English kings did little to stem the tide, instead using Ireland to draw upon men and supplies in the wars in Scotland and France.

By the 1390s the Lordship had effectively shrunk to the Pale with the rest of the island under the control of independent Gaelic-Irish or rebel Cambro-Norman noble families. King Richard II of England made two journeys to Ireland during his reign to rectify the situation; as a direct result of his second visit in 1399 he lost his throne to Henry Bolingbroke. This was the last time that a medieval king of England visited Ireland.

For the duration of the 15th century, royal power in Ireland was weak, the country being dominated by the various clans and dynasties of Gaelic (O'Neill, O'Brien, MacCarthy) or Cambro-Norman (Burke, FitzGerald, Butler) origin. Affairs closer to London ensured, well into the 1530s, that Irish affairs remained at best a secondary concern.

Lords of Ireland 1177–1541

The title of Lord of Ireland was abolished by Henry VIII, who was made King of Ireland by the Parliament of Ireland by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542.

The Kingdom of Ireland: 1542–1800

Re-creation of title

Henry VIII claimed the title "King of Ireland" in 1542.

The title "King of Ireland" was created by an act of the Irish Parliament in 1541, replacing the Lordship of Ireland, which had existed since 1171, with the Kingdom of Ireland. The Crown of Ireland Act 1542 established a personal union between the English and Irish crowns, providing that whoever was King of England was to be King of Ireland as well, and so its first holder was King Henry VIII of England. Henry's sixth and last wife, Katherine Parr, was the first Queen consort of Ireland following her marriage to King Henry in 1543.[1] This followed the failure of the plan to make The 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset (1519–1536) the King of Ireland. Although Richmond was made Lord Lieutenant, the King's counsellors feared that creating a separate Kingdom of Ireland, with a ruler other than that of England, would create another threat like the King of Scotland.[2]

The title of King of Ireland was created after Henry VIII had been excommunicated in 1538, so it was not recognised by European Catholic monarchs. Following the accession of the Catholic Mary I in 1553 and her marriage to Felipe, Prince of Asturias, in 1554, Pope Paul IV issued the papal bull "Ilius" in 1555, recognising them as Queen and King of Ireland together with her heirs and successors.[3]

For a brief period in the 17th century, during the Confederate Ireland, still recognised Charles I, and later Charles II, as legitimate monarchs, in opposition to the claims of the English Parliament, and signed a formal treaty with Charles I in 1648. But in 1649, the Rump Parliament, victorious in the English Civil War, executed Charles I, and made England a republic, or "Commonwealth". The Parliamentarian general Oliver Cromwell came across the Irish Sea to crush the Irish royalists, temporarily uniting England, Scotland, and Ireland under one government, and styling himself "Lord Protector" of the three kingdoms. (See also Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.) After Cromwell's death in 1658, his son Richard emerged as the leader of this pan-British Isles republic, but he was not competent to maintain it. The Parliament of England at Westminster voted to restore the monarchy, and in 1660 King Charles II returned from exile in France to become King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland.

Union with Great Britain

The Acts of Union 1707 merged the kingdoms of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain, under the sovereignty of the British Crown. The effect was to create a personal union between the Crown of Ireland and the British Crown, instead of the English Crown. Later, from 1 January 1801, an additional merger took place between the two Kingdoms. By the terms of the Acts of Union 1800, the Kingdom of Ireland merged with the Kingdom of Great Britain, thus creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the separation of most of Ireland from that kingdom in 1922, the remaining constituent parts were renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1927, five years after the establishment of the Irish Free State.

Partition: Irish Free State and Northern Ireland (1922–1936)

Queen Mary in 1911.
Within a decade it was the seat of the Oireachtas of the Irish Free State.

In early December 1922, most of Ireland (twenty-six of the country's thirty-two counties) left the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. These 'Twenty-Six Counties' now became the Irish Free State, a self-governing Dominion within the British Empire. Six of Ireland's north-eastern counties, all within the Province of Ulster, remained within the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland. As a Dominion, the Free State was a constitutional monarchy with the British monarch as its head of state. The monarch was officially represented in the new Free State by the Governor-General of the Irish Free State.

The King's title in the Irish Free State was exactly the same as it was elsewhere in the British Empire, being from 1922 to 1927: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India" and, from 1927 to 1937: "By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India". The change in the King's title was effected under an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom called the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act, 1927, intended to update the name of the United Kingdom as well as the King's title to reflect the fact that most of the island of Ireland had left the United Kingdom. The Act therefore provided that "Parliament shall hereafter be known as and styled the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland [instead of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland]" and "In every Act passed and public document issued after the passing of this Act the expression 'United Kingdom' shall, unless the context otherwise requires, mean Great Britain and Northern Ireland."[4]

According to [4] The change did not mean that the King had now assumed different styles in the different parts of his Empire. That development did not formally occur until 1953, four years after the new Republic of Ireland had left the Commonwealth.

Despite a lack of change in his title, George V's position as king of that country became separated from his place as King of the United Kingdom (as occurred with all the other British Dominions at the time). The Government of the Irish Free State (also known as His Majesty's Government in the Irish Free State) was confident that the relationship of these independent countries under the Crown would function as a personal union.[5]

Abdication crisis, President of Ireland and Republic of Ireland Act (1936–1949)

The constitutional crisis resulting from the

  • Synchronismen der irischen Konige, Rudolf Thurneysen, ZCP 19, 1933, pp. 81–99
  • The Ui Brian Kingship in Telach Oc, James Hogan, in Feil-Sgrighinn Eoin Mhic Neill, pp. 406–444, ed. John Ryan, Dublin, 1938
  • Early Irish History and Mythology, T.F. O'Rahilly, 1946
  • The heir-designate in early medieval Ireland, Gearóid Mac Niocaill, Irish Jurist 3 (1968), pp. 326–29.
  • The rise of the Ui Neill and the high-kingship of Ireland, Francis John Byrne, O'Donnell Lecture, 1969; published Dublin, 1970
  • Irish regnal succession – a reappraisal, Donnchadh O Corrain, Studia Hibernica 11, 1971, pp7–39
  • Gaelic and Gaelicised Ireland, Kenneth Nicholls, 1972
  • Ri Eirenn, Ri Alban, kingship and identity in the night and tenth centuries, Maire Herbert, in Kings clerics and chronicles in Scotland, pp. 62–72, ed. S. Taylor, Dublin, 2000
  • Irish Kings and High Kings, Francis John Byrne, 1973; 3rd reprint, Dublin, 2001
  • Dal Cais, church and dynasty, Donnachadh O Corrain, Eiru 24, 1973, pp. 1–69
  • Nationality and kingship in pre-Norman Ireland, Donnchadh O Corrain, in Nationality and the pursuit of national independence, pp. 1–35, Historical Studies 11, ed. T.W. Moody, Belfast, 1978
  • The Irish royal sites in history and archaeology, B. Wailes, CMCS 3, 1982, pp. 1–29
  • A New History of Ireland vol. ix:maps, genealogies, lists:a companion to Irish history part II., edited T.W. Moody, F.X. Martin, F.J.Byrne, Oxford, 1984
  • The archaeology of early Irish kingship, Richard B. Warner, in Power and Politics in Early Medieval Britain and Ireland, pp. 47–68, ed. S.T. Driscoll and M.R. Nieke, Edinburgh, 1988
  • From Kings to Warlords:The Changing Political Structure of Gaelic Ireland in the Later Middle Ages, Katharine Simms, Dublin, 1987
  • The King as Judge in early Ireland, Marilyn Gerriets, CMCS 13 (1987), pp. 39–72.
  • High Kingship and Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus, A.T. Fear, in EtC 30 (1994), pp. 165–68.
  • Kingship, society and sacrality:rank, power and ideology in early medieval Ireland, N.B. Aitchison, in Traditio 49 (1994) pp. 45–47
  • Kings and kingship in Early Medieval Ireland, pp. 63–84, Daibhi O Croinin, 1995
  • The Kingship of Tara in Early Christian Ireland, Thomas Charles-Edwards, 1995
  • Kings over overkings. Propaganda for pre-eminence in early medieval Ireland, Bart Jaski, in The Propagation of Power in the Medieval West, ed. M. Gosman, A. Vanderjagt, J. Veenstra, pp. 163–76, Groningen, 1996
  • An inaugural ode to Hugh O'Connor (King of Connacht 1293–1309, Seam Mac Mathuna, ZCP 49–50, 1997, pp. 26–62.
  • The inauguration of Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair at Ath an Termoinn, Elizabeth FitzPatrick, Peritia 12 (1998), pp. 351–8
  • Kings, the kingship of Leinster and the regnal poems of "laidshenchas Laigen:a reflection of dynastic politics in leinster, 650–1150, Edel Bhreathnach, in Seanchas:Studies in Early and Medieval Irish Archaeology, History and Literature in Honour of Francis John Byrne, Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2000
  • The Conntinuation of Bede, s.a. 750; high-kings, kings of Tara and Bretwaldas, T.M. Charles-Edwards, pp. 137–145, op.cit.
  • Early Irish Kingship and Succession, Bart Jaski, Dublin, 2000
  • Leinster states and kings in Christian times pp. 33–52, The Ua Maelechlainn kings of Meath, pp. 90–107, Christian kings of Connacht, pp. 177–194, Paul Walsh, in Irish Leaders and Learning Through the Ages, ed. Nollaig O Muraile, 2003
  • Finghin MacCarthaigh, king of Desmond, and the mystery of the second nunnery at Clonmacnoise, Conleth Manning, in Regions and Rulers in Ireland 1100–1650, ed. David Edwards, pp. 20–26, Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2004
  • Kingship in Early Ireland, Charles Doherty, in The Kingship and Landscape of Tara, pp. 3–31, ed. Edel Bhreathnach, Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2005
  • Kings named in "Baile Chuinn Chechathaig" and the Airgialla Charter Poem, Ailbhe Mac Shamhrain and Paul Byrne, in op.cit., pp. 159–224.
  • High-Kings with Opposition, Maire-Therese Flannagan, in A New History of Ireland, Volume One:Pre-Historic and Early Ireland, 2008
  1. ^ Katherine Parr, editor, Janel Mueller. Katherine Parr: Complete Works and Correspondence, University of Chicago Press, 2011. pg 178. Last Will and Testament of Dowager Queen Katherine Parr
  2. ^ J.J. Scarisbrick, English Monarchs: Henry VIII, University of California Press
  3. ^ The papal bull "ILIUS" of 1555 conferring the title of King of Ireland upon Philip, Prince of Asturias (later Philip II of Spain)
  4. ^ a b The Times, 4 March 1927
  5. ^ "Black v Chrétien: Suing a Minister of the Crown for Abuse of Power, Misfeasance in Public Office and Negligence". Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law 9 (3). September 2002. Retrieved 2 October 2008. 
  6. ^  
  7. ^ McMahon, Deirdre (1984). Republicans and Imperialists: Anglo-Irish Relations in the 1930's. p. 181.  
  8. ^ In the words of Mary E. Daly (January 2007). "The Irish Free State/Éire/Republic of Ireland/Ireland: "A Country by Any Other Name"?". Journal of British Studies 46 (1): 72–90.  : "After the enactment of the 1936 External Relations Act and the 1937 Constitution, Ireland's only remaining link with the crown had been the accreditation of diplomats. The president of Ireland was the head of state. When opposition deputies asked de Valera whether Ireland was a republic—a favorite pastime in the mid‐1940s—he tended to resort to dictionary definitions showing that Ireland had all the attributes of a republic."
  9. ^ Section 1 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948.
  10. ^ Kondō, Atsushi (2001). Citizenship in a Global World: Comparing Citizenship Rights for Aliens. Hampshire: Palgrave. p. 120.  
  11. ^ Proclamation altering the Style and Titles appertaining to the Crown, London, 13 May 1927.[4]
  12. ^ Heads of government attending the 1926 Imperial Conference included W. T. Cosgrave, then serving as President of the Executive Council (prime minister) from 1922 to 1932. It was recorded that the distinct characteristics and histories of each was recognised by the parties attending the Conference,
  13. ^ See "The Flags of Canada", Alistair B. Fraser, 1998, [5] 1_For the chronology of Canadian flags from 1870, at the time of the Irish republican movement, see Appendix III [6]. 2_For explanation of the distinction between national flags and monarchical badges or blazons of arms see Chapter I: ___"...a nation needs emblems and symbols to preserve traditions and inspire love of country. Of these symbols, the coat of arms and the flag are the chief." Charles Frederick Hamilton, Assistant Comptroller, R.C.M.P (1921) ___"The function of a flag is to send the simple message of identity. The function of arms is to dignify an individual, or institution, or country by special identifying symbolism and by appropriate reference to ancestry." John Ross Matheson, Canada's Flag: A Search for a Country (Boston G.K. Hall, 1980), p. 7. ___"Canada's flag serves to identify something Canadian. More specialized in its use, Canada's arms identify national authority and jurisdiction. Leaving aside strictly decorative uses of either, the flag is used wherever one wishes to make the simple statement: Canada or Canadian; the arms only where the authority of the nation is asserted." Alistair B. Fraser, 1998, op.cit.


The changes in the royal style in the 20th century took into account the emergence of independence for the dominions from the Imperial Parliament of the United Kingdom. The kings successively and their advisers and governments in the United Kingdom were fully aware that the republican intent of the representatives of the Irish Free State was in marked contrast to the intent of the governments of certain other dominions, such as Canada.[12] and such differences were manifested in this period in the design and use of flags and other national symbols for the Irish Free State and other dominions.[13]

The king's title in the Irish Free State, when it became a self-governing Dominion of the British Empire, and its constitutional successor from December 1936 to April 1949, was the same as elsewhere in the British Commonwealth,[11] but it was unclear whether the President of Ireland was Irish head of state from 1936 to 1949 or the King, George VI.

King's title, George I – George VI

Monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

  • Dominion of the British Empire and subsequently, in 1931, a legislatively independent country)
  • Edward VIII (1936)
  • Arguably diminished
The royal arms of Ireland – Badge of Ireland, used during the period of the Kingdom of Ireland on coins, etc.

Monarchs of the Irish Free State and Ireland

The Acts of Union 1800, instituted in reaction to the Irish Rebellion of 1798, created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

The position of King of Ireland was contested by William III and James II between 1689 and 1691, after the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The Crown and Parliament Recognition Act 1689 made William King of Ireland, and this was reinforced by his victory at the Battle of the Boyne (part of the Williamite War in Ireland).

The Wars of the Three Kingdoms (incorporating the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Confederate Ireland, the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland and the Irish Confederate Wars) took place between 1639 and 1651. Charles I was executed in 1649 and his son Charles II was recognised by some Irish lords as King of Ireland. The Interregnum began with England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales ruled by the Council of State, then the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell (1649–58) and his son Richard Cromwell (1658–59). The Restoration in Ireland was effected in 1660 without major opposition, Charles II being declared King on 14 May 1660 by the Irish Convention.

An Irish groat depicting Philip and Mary

Monarchs of Ireland

List of monarchs of Ireland

The British monarchy, specifically, continued and continues in Northern Ireland, which remains a part of the sovereign state that is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. From 1921 until 1973, the British monarch was officially represented in Northern Ireland by the Governor of Northern Ireland.

. Statute Law Revision (Pre-Union Irish Statutes) Act 1962 by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 with the repeal of the Oireachtas The position of the King in the Irish state was finally and formally ended by the [10].British Commonwealth The External Relations Act was repealed, removing the remaining duties of the monarch, and Ireland formally withdrew from the [9], which came into force in April 1949 and declared the state to be a republic.Republic of Ireland Act 1948 This ambiguity was eliminated with the enactment of the [8][7]

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