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Outline of thought

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Title: Outline of thought  
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Subject: Thought, Cognition, Reason, Mental process, Redirects for discussion/Log/2015 August 4
Collection: Cognitive Science Lists, Outlines, Psychology Lists, Thought
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Outline of thought

A chimpanzee thinking.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to thought (thinking):

Thought (also called thinking) – the mental process in which beings form psychological associations and models of the world. Thinking is manipulating information, as when we form concepts, engage in problem solving, reason and make decisions. Thought, the act of thinking, produces thoughts. A thought may be an idea, an image, a sound or even an emotional feeling that arises from the brain.


  • Nature of thought 1
  • Types of thoughts 2
    • Content of thoughts 2.1
  • Types of thought (thinking) 3
    • Animal thought 3.1
    • Human thought 3.2
      • Classifications of thought 3.2.1
      • Creative processes 3.2.2
      • Decision-making 3.2.3
      • Erroneous thinking 3.2.4
      • Emotional intelligence (emotionally based thinking) 3.2.5
      • Problem solving 3.2.6
      • Reasoning 3.2.7
    • Machine thought 3.3
    • Organizational thought 3.4
  • Aspects of the thinker 4
  • Properties of thought 5
  • Fields that study thought 6
  • Thought tools and thought research 7
  • History of thinking 8
  • Nootropics (cognitive enhancers and smart drugs) 9
    • Organizational thinking concepts 9.1
  • Teaching methods and skills 10
  • Awards related to thinking 11
    • Awards for acts of genius 11.1
  • Organizations 12
  • Media 13
    • Publications 13.1
      • Books 13.1.1
      • Periodicals 13.1.2
    • Television programs 13.2
  • Persons associated with thinking 14
    • People notable for their extraordinary ability to think 14.1
    • Scientists in fields that study thought 14.2
    • Scholars of thinking 14.3
  • Related concepts 15
    • Awareness and perception 15.1
    • Learning and memory 15.2
  • See also 16
  • References 17
  • External links 18

Nature of thought

Thought (or thinking) can be described as all of the following:

  • An activity taking place in a:
    • brain – organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals (only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain). It is the physical structure associated with the mind.
    • computer (see automated reasoning, below) – general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Since a sequence of operations (an algorithm) can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem.
  • An activity of intelligence – intellectual capacity, which is characterized by perception, consciousness, self-awareness, and volition. Through their intelligence, humans possess the cognitive abilities to learn, form concepts, understand, apply logic, and reason, including the capacities to recognize patterns, comprehend ideas, plan, problem solve, make decisions, retaining, and use language to communicate. Intelligence enables humans to experience and think.
    • A type of mental process – something that individuals can do with their minds. Mental processes include perception, memory, thinking, volition, and emotion. Sometimes the term cognitive function is used instead.
  • Thought as a biological adaptation mechanism[3]

Types of thoughts

Content of thoughts

Types of thought (thinking)

Listed below are types of thought, also known as thinking processes.

Animal thought

See Animal cognition

Human thought

Human thought

Classifications of thought

Creative processes

Creative processes



Erroneous thinking

see Error for some examples, see also Human error)

Emotional intelligence (emotionally based thinking)

Emotional intelligence

Problem solving

Problem solving



Machine thought

Machine thought (outline)

Organizational thought

Organizational thought (thinking by organizations)

Aspects of the thinker

Aspects of the thinker which may affect (help or hamper) his or her thinking:

Properties of thought

Fields that study thought

Thought tools and thought research

History of thinking

Main article: History of reasoning

Nootropics (cognitive enhancers and smart drugs)

Substances that improve mental performance:

Organizational thinking concepts

Teaching methods and skills

Awards related to thinking

Awards for acts of genius






Television programs

Persons associated with thinking

People notable for their extraordinary ability to think

Scientists in fields that study thought

Scholars of thinking

Related concepts

Awareness and perception

Learning and memory

See also

Place these



  1. ^, "mind": "1. (in a human or other conscious being) the element, part, substance, or process that reasons, thinks, feels, wills, perceives, judges, etc.: the processes of the human mind. 2. Psychology. the totality of conscious and unconscious mental processes and activities. 3. intellect or understanding, as distinguished from the faculties of feeling and willing; intelligence."
  2. ^ Google definition, "mind": "The element of a person that enables them to be aware of the world and their experiences, to think, and to feel; the faculty of consciousness." [2]
  3. ^ Danko Nikolić (2014). "Practopoiesis: Or how life fosters a mind. arXiv:1402.5332 [q-bio.NC].". 
  4. ^ Ivan Fantin (2014). Applied Problem Solving. Method, Applications, Root Causes, Countermeasures, Poka-Yoke and A3. How to make things happen to solve problems. Milan, Italy: Createspace, an Amazon company. ISBN 978-1499122282
  5. ^ "Definition of: Moral Reasoning". Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  6. ^
  7. ^ "History of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy". National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists. Retrieved March 8, 2011. 

External links

  • Fries, Daniel F. "The Uniqueness of Human Relaxed Thinking". Corpina Nootropics (Nov-Dec 2013). Retrieved 2007-04-23. 
  • The Psychology of Emotions, Feelings and Thoughts, Free Online Book
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