World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Pneumatics

Article Id: WHEBN0000195891
Reproduction Date:

Title: Pneumatics  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Model warship combat, Hydraulics, Disc brake, Aerial work platform, Boost controller
Collection: Pneumatics
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Pneumatics

Preserved Porter Locomotive Company No. 3290 of 1923.

Pneumatics (Greek:which means "breath") is a branch of physics applied to technology that makes use of gas or pressurized air.

Pneumatic systems used extensively in industry are commonly powered by compressed air or compressed inert gases. A centrally located and electrically powered compressor powers cylinders, air motors, and other pneumatic devices. A pneumatic system controlled through manual or automatic solenoid valves is selected when it provides a lower cost, more flexible, or safer alternative to electric motors and actuators.

Pneumatics also has applications in dentistry, construction, mining, and other areas.

Contents

  • Examples of pneumatic systems and components 1
  • Gases used in pneumatic systems 2
  • Comparison to hydraulics 3
    • Advantages of pneumatics 3.1
    • Advantages of hydraulics 3.2
  • Pneumatic logic 4
  • See also 5
  • Notes 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Examples of pneumatic systems and components

Gases used in pneumatic systems

Pneumatic systems in fixed installations, such as factories, use compressed air because a sustainable supply can be made by compressing atmospheric air. The air usually has moisture removed, and a small quantity of oil is added at the compressor to prevent corrosion and lubricate mechanical components.

Factory-plumbed pneumatic-power users need not worry about poisonous leakage, as the gas is usually just air. Smaller or stand-alone systems can use other compressed gases that present an asphyxiation hazard, such as nitrogen—often referred to as OFN (oxygen-free nitrogen) when supplied in cylinders.

Any compressed gas other than air is an asphyxiation hazard—including nitrogen, which makes up 78% of air. Compressed oxygen (approx. 21% of air) would not asphyxiate, but is not used in pneumatically-powered devices because it is a fire hazard, more expensive, and offers no performance advantage over air.

Portable pneumatic tools and small vehicles, such as Robot Wars machines and other hobbyist applications are often powered by compressed carbon dioxide, because containers designed to hold it such as soda stream canisters and fire extinguishers are readily available, and the phase change between liquid and gas makes it possible to obtain a larger volume of compressed gas from a lighter container than compressed air requires. Carbon dioxide is an asphyxiant and can be a freezing hazard if vented improperly.

Comparison to hydraulics

Both pneumatics and hydraulics are applications of fluid power. Pneumatics uses an easily compressible gas such as air or a suitable pure gas—while hydraulics uses relatively incompressible liquid media such as oil. Most industrial pneumatic applications use pressures of about 80 to 100 pounds per square inch (550 to 690 kPa). Hydraulics applications commonly use from 1,000 to 5,000 psi (6.9 to 34.5 MPa), but specialized applications may exceed 10,000 psi (69 MPa).

Advantages of pneumatics

  • Simplicity of design and control—Machines are easily designed using standard cylinders and other components, and operate via simple on-off control.
  • Reliability—Pneumatic systems generally have long operating lives and require little maintenance. Because gas is compressible, equipment is less subject to shock damage. Gas absorbs excessive force, whereas fluid in hydraulics directly transfers force. Compressed gas can be stored, so machines still run for a while if electrical power is lost.
  • Safety—There is a very low chance of fire compared to hydraulic oil. Newer machines are usually overload safe.

Advantages of hydraulics

  • Liquid does not absorb any of the supplied energy.
  • Capable of moving much higher loads and providing much higher forces due to the incompressibility.
  • The hydraulic working fluid is basically incompressible, leading to a minimum of spring action. When hydraulic fluid flow is stopped, the slightest motion of the load releases the pressure on the load; there is no need to "bleed off" pressurized air to release the pressure on the load.

Pneumatic logic

Pneumatic logic systems (sometimes called air logic control) are often used for controlling industrial processes, consisting of primary logic units like:

  • And Units
  • Or Units
  • 'Relay or Booster' Units
  • Latching Units
  • 'Timer' Units
  • Sorteberg relay
  • Fluidics amplifiers with no moving parts other than the air itself

Pneumatic logic is a reliable and functional control method for industrial processes. In recent years, these systems have largely been replaced by electronic control systems in new installations because of the smaller size, lower cost, greater precision, and more powerful features of digital controls. Pneumatic devices are still used where upgrade cost, or safety factors dominate.[1]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ KMC Controls. "Pneumatic to Digital: Open System Conversions" (PDF). Retrieved 5 October 2015. 

References

  • Brian S. Elliott, Compressed Air Operations Manual, McGraw Hill Book Company, 2006, ISBN 0-07-147526-5.
  • Heeresh Mistry, Fundamentals of Pneumatic Engineering, Create Space e-Publication, 2013, ISBN 1-49-372758-3.

External links

  • Four Ways to Boost Pneumatic Efficiency
  • Pneumatic Symbols DWG/DXF
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.