World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Project

Article Id: WHEBN0000160483
Reproduction Date:

Title: Project  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Architectural plan, Cost contingency, Event chain methodology, Project management, Quality gate
Collection: Collaboration, Project Management, Projects
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Project

In contemporary business and science a project is a collaborative enterprise, involving research or design, that is carefully planned to achieve a particular aim.[1]

Projects can be further defined as temporary rather than permanent tasks under time constraints.[2] An ongoing project is usually called (or evolves into) a program.

Contents

  • Overview 1
  • Specific uses 2
    • School and university 2.1
    • Engineering project 2.2
    • Project management 2.3
  • Examples of notable projects 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Overview

The word project comes the Latin word projectum from the Latin verb proicere, "before an action" which in turn comes from pro-, which denotes precedence, something that comes before something else in time (paralleling the Greek πρό) and iacere, "to do". The word "project" thus actually originally meant "before an action".

When the English language initially adopted the word, it referred to a plan of something, not to the act of actually carrying this plan out. Something performed in accordance with a project became known as an "object".Every project has certain phases of development.

Specific uses

School and university

At school, educational institute and university, a project is a research assignment given to a student which generally requires a larger amount of effort and more independent work than is involved in a normal essay assignment. It requires students to undertake their own fact-finding and analysis, either from library/internet research or from gathering data empirically. The written report that comes from the project is usually in the form of a dissertation, which will contain sections on the project's inception, analysis, findings and conclusions...[3]

Engineering project

Engineering projects are, in many countries, specifically defined by legislation, which requires that such projects should be carried out by registered engineers and/or registered engineering companies. Only licensed companies can carry out such work as designing and constructing buildings, power plants, industrial facilities or installation of electrical networks as well as other type of work in the domain

The goal of the project is specified in a contract between the owner and the construction companies. As a rule, an engineering project is broken down into design and construction phases. The outputs of the design process are drawings, calculations, and all other design documentation necessary to carry out the next phase. The next phase would normally be sending the project plans to a developer who will then help construct the plans (construction phase). Engineering student's project www.studentsproject.in

Project management

In project management a project consists of a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.[4] Another definition is a management environment that is created for the purpose of delivering one or more business products according to a specified business case.

Project objectives define target status at the end of the project, reaching of which is considered necessary for the achievement of planned benefits. They can be formulated as SMART criteria:[5] Specific, Measurable (or at least evaluable) achievement, Achievable (recently Agreed-to or Acceptable are used regularly as well), Realistic (given the current state of organizational resources) and Time terminated (bounded). The evaluation (measurement) occurs at the project closure. However a continuous guard on the project progress should be kept by monitoring and evaluating. It is also worth noting that SMART is best applied for incremental type innovation projects. For radical type projects it does not apply as well. Goals for such projects tend to be broad, qualitative, stretch/unrealistic and success will be driven.

Examples of notable projects

See also

References

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  2. ^ "SSRN-Embedding Projects in Multiple Contexts: A Structuration Perspective by Stephan Manning". Papers.ssrn.com. 
  3. ^ Thomas, G: How to do your research project. Sage Publications Inc, 2009....
  4. ^ A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), Third Edition, Project Management Institute.
  5. ^ Carr, David, Make Sure Your Project Goals are SMART, PM Hut. Accessed 18. Oct 2009.

6. Final Year students project www.studentsproject.in

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.