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Soursop

Annona muricata var. subonica
Soursop fruit, whole and in longitudinal section
Soursop, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 276 kJ (66 kcal)
16.84 g
Sugars 13.54 g
Dietary fiber 3.3 g
Fat
0.3 g
1 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(6%)
0.07 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(4%)
0.05 mg
Niacin (B3)
(6%)
0.9 mg
(5%)
0.253 mg
Vitamin B6
(5%)
0.059 mg
Folate (B9)
(4%)
14 μg
Choline
(2%)
7.6 mg
Vitamin C
(25%)
20.6 mg
Minerals
Calcium
(1%)
14 mg
Iron
(5%)
0.6 mg
Magnesium
(6%)
21 mg
Phosphorus
(4%)
27 mg
Potassium
(6%)
278 mg
Sodium
(1%)
14 mg
Zinc
(1%)
0.1 mg

Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
A. muricata flower
Soursop fruit on a tree

Soursop is the fruit of Annona muricata, a broadleaf, flowering, evergreen tree native to Mexico, Cuba, Central America, the Caribbean islands of Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, and northern South America, primarily Colombia, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela. Soursop is also produced in all tropical parts of Africa, especially in Eastern Nigeria and The Democratic Republic of Congo, Southeast Asia and the Pacific. It is in the same genus, Annona, as cherimoya and is in the Annonaceae family.

The soursop is adapted to areas of high humidity and relatively warm winters; temperatures below 5 °C (41 °F) will cause damage to leaves and small branches, and temperatures below 3 °C (37 °F) can be fatal. The fruit becomes dry and is no longer good for concentrate.

Other common names include: Shawshopu in (Igbo, Eastern Nigeria) Mãng cầu Xiêm (Vietnamese), Coração de Boi (Mozambique), Evo (Ewe, Volta Region, Ghana), Ekitafeeli (Uganda), Mtomoko (Swahili), Aluguntugui (Ga, Greater Accra Region, Ghana), guanábana (Spanish), graviola (Brazilian Portuguese, pronounced: ), anona (European Portuguese), graviolo (Esperanto), corossol (French), "cœur de boeuf" (Democratic Republic of Congo), kowosòl (Haitian Creole), කටු අනෝදා (Katu Anoda) (Sinhalese), sorsaka (Papiamento), adunu (Acholi), Brazilian pawpaw, (Tagalog)guyabano, guanavana, toge-banreisi, durian benggala, durian belanda, nangka blanda, ทุเรียนเทศ [turi:jen te:d] (Thai), ទៀបបារាំង [tiəp baraŋ] (Khmer), sirsak (Indonesia), zuurzak (Dutch), tomoko (Kiswahili), and nangka londa.[1] In Tamil, Malayalam, it is called Mullatha, literally thorny custard apple. The other lesser-known Indian names are shul-Ram-fal and Lakshman Phala, and in Harar (Ethiopia) in Harari language known for centuries as Amba Shoukh (Thorny Mango or Thorny Fruit) and Annuni in Somali.

The flavor has been described as a combination of strawberry and pineapple, with sour citrus flavour notes contrasting with an underlying creamy flavour reminiscent of coconut or banana.

Soursop is widely promoted (sometimes as "graviola") as an alternative cancer treatment. There is, however, no medical evidence that it is effective.[2]

Contents

  • Cultivation 1
  • Uses 2
  • Properties 3
  • Health 4
    • Neurotoxicity 4.1
    • Alternative cancer treatment 4.2
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Cultivation

The plant is grown for its 20–30 cm (7.9–11.8 in) long, prickly, green fruit, which can have a mass of up to 6.8 kg (15 lb),[3] making it probably the second biggest annona after the junglesop.

Fruit and leaves of Annona muricata

Away from its native area, some limited production occurs as far north as southern Florida within USDA Zone 10; however, these are mostly garden plantings for local consumption. It is also grown in parts of Southeast Asia and abundant on the Island of Mauritius. The soursop will reportedly fruit as a container specimen, even in temperate climates, if protected from cool temperatures.

Uses

The flesh of the fruit consists of an edible, white pulp, some fiber, and a core of indigestible, black seeds. The species is the only member of its genus suitable for processing and preservation.

The pulp is also used to make fruit nectar, smoothies, fruit juice drinks, as well as candies, sorbets, and ice cream flavorings.

Due to the fruit’s widespread cultivation and popularity in parts of Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, soursop and its derivative products are consumed across the world, also via branded food and beverage products available in many countries, including Brazil,[4] Mexico,[5] Canada,[6][7] the United States,[8][9][10] the UK, Ireland and Continental Europe,[9][11][12][13][14] Indonesia,[15] Japan,[16] Malaysia,[17][18] Singapore[19][20] and Vietnam.[21][22]

In Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Harar (Ethiopia), it is a common fruit, often used for dessert as the only ingredient, or as an agua fresca beverage; in Colombia and Venezuela, it is a fruit for juices, mixed with milk. Ice cream and fruit bars made of soursop are also very popular. The seeds are normally left in the preparation, and removed while consuming, unless a blender is used for processing.

In Indonesia, dodol sirsak, a sweetmeat, is made by boiling soursop pulp in water and adding sugar until the mixture hardens. Soursop is also a common ingredient for making fresh fruit juices that are sold by street food vendors. In the Philippines, it is called guyabano, derived from the Spanish guanabana, and is eaten ripe, or used to make juices, smoothies, or ice cream. Sometimes, they use the leaf in tenderizing meat. In Vietnam, this fruit is called mãng cầu Xiêm (Siamese Soursop) in the south, or mãng cầu (Soursop) in the north, and is used to make smoothies, or eaten as is. In Cambodia, this fruit is called tearb barung, literally "western custard-apple fruit." In Malaysia, it is known in Malay as durian belanda and in East Malaysia, specifically among the Dusun people of Sabah, it is locally known as lampun. Popularly, it is eaten raw when it ripens, or used as one of the ingredients in Ais Kacang or Ais Batu Campur. Usually the fruits are taken from the tree when they mature and left to ripen in a dark corner, whereby they will be eaten when they are fully ripe. It has a white flower with a very pleasing scent, especially in the morning. While for people in Brunei Darussalam this fruit is popularly known as "Durian Salat", widely available and easily planted. It was most likely brought from Mexico to the Philippines by way of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade.

In Australia a variant (Annona reticulata) called "custard apple" is consumed as dessert.

Properties

Annonacin is a neurotoxin found in soursop seeds

The fruit contains significant amounts of vitamin C, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2.[23]

Health

Neurotoxicity

The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center cautions, "alkaloids extracted from graviola may cause neuronal dysfunction and degeneration leading to symptoms of Parkinson's disease".[24] The compound annonacin, which is contained in the seeds of soursop, is a neurotoxin associated with neurodegenerative disease,[25] and research has suggested a connection between consumption of soursop and atypical forms of Parkinson's disease due to high concentrations of annonacin.[26]

In 2010 the French food safety agency (Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments) concluded that, based on the available research findings, "it is not possible to confirm that the observed cases of atypical Parkinson syndrome […] are linked to the consumption of Annona muricata," calling for further study on potential risks to human health.[27]

Alternative cancer treatment

The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center lists cancer treatment as one of the "purported uses" of soursop.[24] According to [2]

In 2008 a court case relating to the sale in the UK of Triamazon, a soursop product, resulted in the criminal conviction of a man under the terms of the UK Cancer Act for offering to treat people for cancer. A spokesman for the council that instigated the action stated, "it is as important now as it ever was that people are protected from those peddling unproven products with spurious claims as to their effects."[28]

The Federal Trade Commission in the United States determined that there was "no credible scientific evidence" that the extract of soursop sold by Bioque Technologies "can prevent, cure, or treat cancer of any kind."[29]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Graviola (Soursop)". Blackherbals. Retrieved 30 January 2012. 
  2. ^ a b "Can graviola cure cancer?".  
  3. ^ http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/soursop.html
  4. ^ Frutos do Brasil. http://www.frutosdobrasil.com.br/en/produtos/sorvetes/graviolalight Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  5. ^ Jumex. http://www.jumex.com/en/our-brands/juice-nectars Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  6. ^ Tropical Treets. http://www.tropicaltreets.com Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  7. ^ Sweet ‘n Nice. http://www.sweetnnice.ca/?page_id=10#3 Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  8. ^ Jumex. http://www.walmart.com/ip/Jumex-Guanabana-Nectar-11.3-oz-Pack-of-24/17194301 Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  9. ^ a b Goya. http://www.goya.com/english/product_subcategory/Beverages/Nectars-Juices Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  10. ^ Jans Food. http://www.jansfood.com/beverage-sm_beverage.html Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  11. ^ JUNA. http://www.junafruits.com/range/guanabana Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  12. ^ Rubicon Exotic. http://www.rubiconexotic.com/#/guanabana Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  13. ^ True Fruits. http://www.true-fruits.com/smoothie-saft/pink/ Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  14. ^ Moriba. http://www.moriba.fr/fr/12-jus-de-fruits Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  15. ^ Pokka Indonesia. https://www.facebook.com/PokkaIndonesia Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  16. ^ Tropical Maria. http://www.tropicalmaria.com/ Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  17. ^ Pokka Malaysia. http://www.pokka.com.my Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  18. ^ Yeo’s. http://tfisher2014.soup.io/post/438224975/Read-more-about-soursop Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  19. ^ CKL / Sagiko. http://www.chiakhimlee.com/products.html Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  20. ^ Pokka Singapore. http://www.pokka.com.sg Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  21. ^ Rita. http://www.rita.com.vn/product/index?cid=15&page=2 Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  22. ^ Wonderfarm. http://www.wonderfarmonline.com/products/view/wonderfarm#01 Accessed 2013-11-12.
  23. ^ Morton, Julia F. (1987). )"Annona muricata"Soursop (. Fruits of warm climates. Purdue University. pp. 75–80. Retrieved 28 October 2012. 
  24. ^ a b "Graviola". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Retrieved November 2013. 
  25. ^ Le Ven, J.; Schmitz-Afonso, I.; Touboul, D.; Buisson, D.; Akagah, B.; Cresteil, T.; Lewin, G.; Champy, P. (2011). "Annonaceae fruits and parkinsonism risk: Metabolisation study of annonacin, a model neurotoxin; evaluation of human exposure". Toxicology Letters 205: S50.  
  26. ^
    • Lannuzel, A; Michel, P.P; Höglinger, G.U; Champy, P; Jousset, A; Medja, F; Lombès, A; Darios, F; Gleye, C; Laurens, A; Hocquemiller, R; Hirsch, E.C; Ruberg, M (2003). "The mitochondrial complex I inhibitor annonacin is toxic to mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons by impairment of energy metabolism". Neuroscience 121 (2): 287–96.  
    • Champy, Pierre; Melot, Alice; Guérineau Eng, Vincent; Gleye, Christophe; Fall, Djibril; Höglinger, Gunter U.; Ruberg, Merle; Lannuzel, Annie; Laprévote, Olivier; Laurens, Alain; Hocquemiller, Reynald (2005). "Quantification of acetogenins inAnnona muricata linked to atypical parkinsonism in guadeloupe". Movement Disorders 20 (12): 1629–33.  
    • Lannuzel, A.; Höglinger, G. U.; Champy, P.; Michel, P. P.; Hirsch, E. C.; Ruberg, M. (2006). "Is atypical parkinsonism in the Caribbean caused by the consumption of Annonacae?". Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementa. Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementa 70 (70): 153–7.  
    • Caparros-Lefebvre, Dominique; Elbaz, Alexis (1999). "Possible relation of atypical parkinsonism in the French West Indies with consumption of tropical plants: A case-control study". The Lancet 354 (9175): 281–6.  
  27. ^ "Avis de l'Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments relatif aux risques liés à la consommation de corossol et de ses préparations" (pdf). Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments. 28 April 2010. Retrieved August 2013. 
  28. ^ "'"Man convicted over cancer 'cure.  
  29. ^ "FTC Sweep Stops Peddlers of Bogus Cancer Cures". FTC. 18 September 2008. 
  30. ^ http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/cancers-in-general/cancer-questions/can-graviola-cure-cancer

External links

  • Bridg, Hannia. L."Annona muricata Mill. and Annona cherimola Stability of in vitro"Micropropagation and Determination of the . 
  • (Portuguese) Correia, M. P., (1984) Dicionário das plantas úteis do Brasil
  • Description of soursop from Fruits of Warm Climates (1987, ISBN 0-9610184-1-0)
  • Sorting Annona names
  • Soursop List of Chemicals (Dr. Duke's)
  • PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ANNONA MURICATA: A REVIEW
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