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The Measure of Poverty a Report to Congress as Mandated by the Education Amendments of 1974

By U. S. Census Bureau Department

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Book Id: WPLBN0000594454
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 7,642,924 KB.
Reproduction Date: 2005
Full Text

Title: The Measure of Poverty a Report to Congress as Mandated by the Education Amendments of 1974  
Author: U. S. Census Bureau Department
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Government publications, Census., Census report
Collection: U.S. Census Bureau Collection
Subcollection:
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: U.S. Census Bureau Department

Description
Statistical Reference Document

Excerpt
Excerpt: The 1974 Amendments to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act included a mandate to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare t o study ways of improving the accuracy and currency of the present measure of poverty used in the formula t h a t a l l o c a t e s funds authorized by T i t l e I of the Act. This i s a summary of the report of t h a t study. Poor persons l i v i n g in the United S t a t e s in the 1970s are r i c h i n c o n t r a s t to t h e i r counterparts in other times and places. They are not poor i f by poor is meant the subsistence l e v e l s of l i v i n g common in some o t h e r c o u n t r i e s. Nor are most poor l i k e t h e i r counterparts i n t h i s country f i f t y or one hundred years ago. This country is concerned about poverty, i t s causes and c o r r e l a t e s. It i s w i l l i n g to r e l i e v e the poverty ? of some of the poor and it wants to measure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i t s e f f o r t s t o do so. None of t h i s can be done without some idea of who i s to be considered poor and who is not.

Table of Contents
CONTENTS FORWARDING LETTER ........................................................................................ iii PREFACE ..................................................................................................i x LIST OF MAPS .............................................................................................x v EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................x.x i INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................. 1 I . I1 . I11 . IV . v . VI . VII . THE FEDERAL POVERTY DEFINITION .. HISTORY AND APPLICATIONS .......................................... 5 HISTORY .......................................................................................... 5 STATISTICAL CONSTRUCTION ......................................................................... 7 STATISTICAL SERIES ON POVERTY .................................................................... 11 ADMINISTRATIVE USAGE OF POVERTY MEASURES ......................................................... 14 CONCEPTS OF POVERTY MEASUREMENT .................................................................... 19 SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CONCEPTIONS OF POVERTY .............................. ECONOMIC MEASURES OF POVERTY ............................................ SETTING A POVERTY LEVEL ................................................. Standards of Physical Needs. 22; Adjustments for Family Size and Compo Cost-of-Living Differences. 26; Updating the Standard. 27 INCOME AND RESOURCES .................................................... Accounting Period . 29; Consumption Measures. 30; Wealth. 31; Taxes. 31 Consumption Unit. 34; Choosing an Income Definition. 35 DATA AVAILABILITY AND LIMITATIONS ......................................... ........................ 19 ........................ 20 ........................ 21 ition, 24; Geographic ........................ 28 In-Kind Income. 32; DATA FOR MEASURING NEEDS .........................................................................3 8 Food. 38; Housing. 40; Other Needs. 44; Standards Based on Actual Consumption Data. 45; Geographic Equivalences. 48; Updating the Standards. 50 DATA FOR MEASURING RESOURCES ..................................................................... 52 Base Data: The Decennial Census. 52; Current Population Survey. 55; Administrative Records. 56; Unemployment Data. 57; The Job Market and Wage Rates. 60; Correcting Cash Income. 60; Adding Other Sources of Income. 62; Different Accounting Periods. 66 CONSTRUCTING POVERTY MEASURES ...................................................................... 69 RELATIVE MEASURES OF POVERTY ..................................................................... 69 POVERTY LEVEL MARKET BASKET ...................................................................... 72 ORSHANSKY UPDATE ................................................................................. 75 ADJUSTMENTS FOR FAMILY SIZE AND COMPOSITION ...................................................... 78 GEOGRAPHIC COST-OF-LIVING DIFFERENCES ............................................................ 81 Components of Geographic Differences. 82; Data Sources for Measuring Geographic Differences. 83; Major Conceptual Problems. 85; Evidence of Geographic Differences. 86; Farm-Nonfarm Differences. 90; Attempts to Overcome Conceptual Problems and Data Limitations. 91 UPDATING THE STANDARD ............................................................................ 91 INCOME AND RESOURCES ............................................................................. 97 General Limitations. 97; The Accounting Period. 97; Assets. 98; Taxes. 99; In-Kind Income. 100; Consumption Unit. 100 ALTERNATIVE POVERTY COUNTS BASED ON AVAILABLE DATA .................................................1 03 ALTERNATIVE POVERTY DEFINITIONS .................................................... THE NUMBER OF POOR. 1974 ........................................................... CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POOR . 1974 .................................................. Persons in Female-Headed Families. 115; Blacks. 115; School-Age Children. 115; El Families with Earnings . 119 SUMMARY OF POVERTY COUNTS AND CHARACTERISTICS ...................................... DIFFERENCES OVER TIME .............................................................. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF POVERTY ................................................. ANALYTIC AND STATISTICAL AGENDA ...................................................... ANALYTIC STUDIES ................................................................... Educational Disadvantage. 137; Setting a Poverty Level. 138; Income and Resources SURVNS ............................................................................. New Income Survey. 141; Geographically Sensitive Pricing Survey. 141; Low-Income Consumption Survey. 142; Household Food Consumption Survey. 142 PROGRAM IMPACT ..................................................................................... 145 GENERAL PROGRAM IMPACT ........................................................................... 145 IMPACT ON TITLE I OF ESEA ........................................................................ 148

 

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