World Library  

Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

An Empirical Model of Global Climate – Part 1: Reduced Impact of Volcanoes Upon Consideration of Ocean Circulation : Volume 12, Issue 9 (13/09/2012)

By Canty, T.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0003986099
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 83
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: An Empirical Model of Global Climate – Part 1: Reduced Impact of Volcanoes Upon Consideration of Ocean Circulation : Volume 12, Issue 9 (13/09/2012)  
Author: Canty, T.
Volume: Vol. 12, Issue 9
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


APA MLA Chicago

Smarte, M., Salawitch, R. J., Mascioli, N. R., & Canty, T. (2012). An Empirical Model of Global Climate – Part 1: Reduced Impact of Volcanoes Upon Consideration of Ocean Circulation : Volume 12, Issue 9 (13/09/2012). Retrieved from

Description: Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA. Observed reductions in Earth's surface temperature following explosive volcanic eruptions have been used as a proxy for geo-engineering of climate by the artificial enhancement of stratospheric sulfate. Earth cools following major eruptions due to an increase in the reflection of sunlight caused by a dramatic enhancement of the stratospheric sulfate aerosol burden. Significant global cooling has been observed following the four major eruptions since 1900: Santa María, Mount Agung, El Chichón, and Mount Pinatubo, leading IPCC (2007) to state major volcanic eruptions can thus cause a drop in global mean surface temperature of about half a degree Celsius that can last for months and even years. We use a multiple linear regression model applied to the global surface temperature anomaly to suggest that exchange of heat between the atmosphere and ocean, driven by variations in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), has been a factor in the decline of global temperature following these eruptions. The veracity of this suggestion depends on whether the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) truly represents a proxy for the strength of the AMOC and the precise quantification of global cooling due to volcanoes depends on how the AMO is detrended. If the AMO is detrended using anthropogenic radiative forcing of climate, we find that surface cooling attributed to Mount Pinatubo, using the Hadley Centre/University of East Anglia surface temperature record, maximizes at 0.15 °C globally and 0.35 °C over land. These values are about a factor of 2 less than found when the AMO is neglected in the model and quite a bit lower than the canonical 0.5 °C cooling usually attributed to Pinatubo. The AMO had begun to decrease prior to the four major eruptions, suggesting that exchange of heat between the atmosphere and ocean due to variations in the strength of the AMOC drives the climate system, rather than responds to volcanic perturbations. The satellite record of atmospheric temperature from 1978 to present and other century-long surface temperature records are also consistent with our suggestion that volcanic cooling may have been over estimated by about a factor of 2 due to prior neglect of ocean circulation. Finally, a regression using AMO simulates pre-WWI cooling and WWII warming of global temperature particularly well, supporting the possibility that variations in the strength of the AMOC have truly exerted influence on global climate.

An empirical model of global climate – Part 1: Reduced impact of volcanoes upon consideration of ocean circulation

Ammann, C. M., Meehl, G. A., Washington, W. M., and Zender, C. S.: A monthly and latitudinally varying volcanic forcing dataset in simulations of 20th century climate, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(12), 1657, doi:10.1029/2003GL016875, 2003.; Ammann, C. M., Washington, W. M., Meehl, G. A., Buja, L., and Teng, H: Climate engineering through artificial enhancement of natural forcings: magnitudes and implied consequences, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D22109, doi:10.1029/2009JD012878, 2010.; Budyko, M. I.: Climate and Life, Academic, New York, 508 pp., 1974.; Andronova, N. G. and Schlesinger, M. E.: Causes of global temperature changes during the 19th and 20th centuries, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27(14), 2137–2140, doi:10.1029/2000GL006109, 2000.; Bony, S., Colman, R., Kattsov, V. M., Allan, R. P., Bretherton, C. S., Dufresne, J.-L., Hall, A., Hallegatte, S., Holland, M. M., Ingram, W., Randall, D. A., Soden, B. J., Tselioudis, G., Webb, M. J.: How well do we understand and evaluate climate change feedback processes?, J. Clim., 19, 3445–3482, doi:10.1029/2005GL023851, 2006.; Booth, B. B. B., Dunstone, N. J., Halloran, P. R., Andrews, T., and Bellouin, N.: Aersosols implicated as a prime driver of twentieth-century North Atlantic climate variability, Nature, 484, 228–232, doi:10.1038/nature10946, 2012.; Carton, J. A. and Santorelli, A.: Global upper ocean heat content as viewed in nine analyses, J. Clim., 21, 6015–6035. doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2489.1, 2008.; Chavez, F. P., Ryan, J., Lluch-Cota, S. E., \ {N}iquen C. M.: From anchovies to sardines and back: multidecadal change in the Pacific Ocean, Science, 299, 217–221, doi:10.1126/science.1075880, 2003.; Christy, J. R., Spencer, R. W., and Braswell, W. D.: MSU tropospheric temperatures: dataset construction and radiosonde comparisons, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 17, 1153–1170, 2000.; Christy, J. R., Spencer, R. W., Norris, W. B., Braswell, W. D., and Parker, D. E.: Error estimates of Version 5.0 of MSU–AMSU bulk atmospheric temperatures, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 20, 613–629, 2003.; Church, J. A., White, N. J., and Arblaster, J. M.: Significant decadal–scale impact of volcanic eruptions on sea level and ocean heat content, Nature, 438, 74–77, doi:10.1038/nature04237, 2005.; Church, J. A., White, N. J., Konikow, L. F., Domingues, C. M., Cogley, J. G., Rignot, E., Gregory, J. M., van den Broecke, M. R., Monaghan, A. J., and Velicogna, I.: Revisiting the Earth's sea-level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18601, doi:


Click To View

Additional Books

  • Biomass Burning Contribution to Beijing ... (by )
  • Quality Assessment of O3 Profiles Measur... (by )
  • Estimates of Global Terrestrial Isoprene... (by )
  • The Distribution and Trends of Fog and H... (by )
  • Sample Drying to Improve Hcho Measuremen... (by )
  • Black Carbon Measurements in the Boundar... (by )
  • Tropical Convective Transport and the Wa... (by )
  • Airborne Observations of Trace Gases Ove... (by )
  • The Travel-related Carbon Dioxide Emissi... (by )
  • One-year Observations of Carbonaceous an... (by )
  • Validation of the Grape Single View Aero... (by )
  • Relating Particle Hygroscopicity and Ccn... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.