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Limited-area Modelling of Stratocumulus Over South-eastern Pacific : Volume 11, Issue 9 (12/09/2011)

By Andrejczuk, M.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003995612
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 40
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Limited-area Modelling of Stratocumulus Over South-eastern Pacific : Volume 11, Issue 9 (12/09/2011)  
Author: Andrejczuk, M.
Volume: Vol. 11, Issue 9
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collection: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary)
Subcollection: Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2011
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Description
Description: School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. This paper discusses the application of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to limited-area modeling of atmospheric processes over the subtropical south-eastern Pacific, with the emphasis on the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer. The simulations cover a period of 42 h selected from the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) field project conducted in the subtropical south-eastern Pacific in October and November~2008. Modeling results are compared with aircraft observations with the main conclusion that the simulated stratocumulus-topped boundary layer is significantly too shallow. This appears to be a combination of an already too shallow boundary layer in the dataset used to provide initial and lateral boundary conditions, and deficiencies of the boundary-layer scheme in the WRF model. We suggest that the latter comes from the scheme confusing the cloud base change of the vertical temperature and moisture gradients with the change at the boundary-layer inversion. The model does simulate the formation of mesoscale cloud-free regions, arguably similar to Pockets of Open Cells observed in nature. In the model, formation of these regions does not seem to be related to drizzle-induced transition from open- to closed-cell circulations as simulated by LES models. Instead, the cloud-free regions appear to result from mesoscale variations of the lower-tropspheric vertical velocity. Areas of negative vertical velocity with minima near the boundary layer top (a few cm s−1) seem to induce direct evaporation of the cloud layer. Parameterized boundary entrainment may play some role as well. It remains to be seen in LES studies whether the mechanism seen in the limited-area model is realistic or if it is simply an artifact of interactions between resolved and parameterized processes.

Summary
Limited-area modelling of stratocumulus over South-Eastern Pacific

Excerpt
Savic-Jovcic, V. and Stevens, B.: The structure and mesoscale organization of precipitating stratocumulus, J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 1587–1605, 2008.; Abel, S. J., Walters, D. N., and Allen, G.: Evaluation of stratocumulus cloud prediction in the Met Office forecast model during VOCALS-REx, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10541–10559, doi:10.5194/acp-10-10541-2010, 2010.; Allen, G., Vaughan, G., Coe, H., and Minnis, P.: Gravity waves observed as a causal mechanism for transition from closed to open cellular convection in the remote South East Pacific, to be submitted, 2011.; Minnis, P., Sun-Mack, S., Young, D. F., Heck, P. W., Garber, D. P., Chen, Y., Spangenberg, D. A., Arduini, R. F., Trepte, Q. Z., Jr., W. L. S., Ayers, J. K., Gibson, S. C., Miller, W. F., Chakrapani, V., Takano, Y., Liou, K.-N., Xie, Y., and Yang, P.: CERES Edition-2 cloud property retrievals using TRMM VIRS and Terra and Aqua MODIS data, Part {I}: Algorithms, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., in press, 2011.; Morrison, H., Thompson, G., and Tatarskii, V.: Impact of cloud micrpohysics on the development of trailing stratiform precipitation in a s:1imulated squall line: Comparison of one- and two-moment schemes, Mon. Weather Rev., 137, 991–1007, 2009.; Petters, M. D., Snider, J. R., Stevens, B., Vali, G., Faloona, I., and Russell, L. M.: Accumulation mode aerosol, pockets of open cells, and particle nucleation in the remote subtropical Pacific marine boundary layer, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D02206, doi:10.1029/2004JD005694, 2006.; Rahn, D. A. and Garreaud, R.: Marine boundary layer over the subtropical southeast Pacific during VOCALS-REx – Part 1: Mean structure and diurnal cycle, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4491–4506, doi:10.5194/acp-10-4491-2010, 2010.; Sharon, T. M., Albrecht, B. A., Jonsson, H. H., Minnis, P., Khaiyer, M. M., van Reken, T. M., Seinfeld, J., and Flagan, R.: Aerosol and Cloud Microphysical Characteristics of Rifts and Gradients in Maritime Stratocumulus Clouds, J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 983–997, 2006.; Skamarock, W. C., Klemp, J. B., Dudhia, J., Gill, D. O., Barker, D. M., Duda, M. G., Huang, X.-Y., Wang, W., and Powers, J. G.: A Description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 3, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 2008.; Stevens, B., Vali, G., Comstock, K., Wood, R., VanZanten, M. C., Austin, P. H., Bretherton, C. S., and Lenschow, D. H.: Pockets of open cells and drizzle in marine stratocumulus, B. Am. Meteor. Soc., 86, 51–57, 2005.; Thompson, G., Rasmussen, R. M., and Manning, K.: Explicit forecasts of winter precipitation using an improved bulk microphysics scheme. Part I: Description and sensitivity analysis, Mon. Weather Rev., 132, 519–542, 2004.; Toniazzo, T., Abel, S. J., Wood, R., Mechoso, C. R., Allen, G., and Shaffrey, L. C.: Large-scale and synoptic meteorology in the South-East Pacific during the observations campaign VOCALS-REx in Spring 2008, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 11, 225–288, doi:10.5194/acpd-11-225-2011, 2011.; VanZanten, M. C. and Stevens, B.: Observations of the Structure of Heavily Precipitating Marine Stratocumulus, J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 4327–4342, 2005.; Wang, H. and Feingold, G.: Modeling Mesoscale Cellular Structures and Drizzle in Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Impact of Drizzle on the Formation and Evolution of Open Cells, J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 3237–3256, 2009{a}.; Wang, H. and Feingold, G.: Modeling Mesoscale Cellular Structures and Drizzle in Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Impact of Drizzle on the Formati

 

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